International Center for Transitional Justice. Reparations. [Cited 2020 January 25]. Available from: https://www.ictj.org/our-work/transitional-justice-issues/reparations. Accessed 12 Jan 2020.
Cohen JJ, Gabriel BA, Terrell C. The case for diversity in the health care workforce. Health Aff. 2002;21(5):90–102.
Turner S. Slavery and the production, circulation, and practice of medicine. Soc Hist Med. 2018;31(4):870–6.
Halperin EC. Lessons from a slave doctor of 1841. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc. 2013;76(1):10–6.
Haller JS. The Negro and the southern physician: a study of medical and racial attitudes 1800–1860. Med Hist. 1972;16(3):238–53.
Fabian A. The skull collectors: race, science, and America’s unburied dead. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press; 2010.
Washington HA. Medical apartheid: The dark history of medical experimentation on Black Americans from colonial times to the present. New York, NY: Doubleday Books; 2006.
Baker RB, Washington HA, Olakanmi O, Savitt TL, Jacobs EA, Hoover E, et al. African American physicians and organized medicine, 1846-1968: origins of a racial divide. JAMA. 2008;300(3):306–13.
Markowitz GE, Rosner DK. Doctors in crisis: a study of the use of medical education reform to establish modern professional elitism in medicine. Am Q. 1973;25(1):83–107.
Bailey M. The Flexner report: standardizing medical students through region-, gender-, and race-based hierarchies. Am J Law Med. 2017;43(2-3):209–23.
Lightfoot OB, Fields DL. Black psychiatrist of 1969 survey the scene, then and now. In: Griffith EE, Jones BE, Stewart AJ, editors. Black mental health: patients, providers, and systems. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub; 2018. p. 39–52.
Boatright DH, Samuels EA, Cramer L, Cross J, Desai M, Latimore D, et al. Association between the liaison committee on medical education’s diversity standards and changes in percentage of medical student sex, race, and ethnicity. JAMA. 2018;320(21):2267–9.
Smedley BD, Butler AS, Bristow LR. Institute of Medicine (US). Committee on Institutional and Policy-Level Strategies for Increasing the Diversity of the US Health Care Workforce, Institute of Medicine (US), Board on Health Sciences Policy. In the nation’s compelling interest: ensuring diversity in the health-care workforce. Board on Health Sciences Policy. In the nation’s compelling interest. Washington, DC. National Academies Press. 2004.
Desai S. The first reparations attempt at an American college comes from its students. The Atlantic. 2019. Education. Available from: https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2019/04/why-are-georgetown-students-paying-reparations/587443/. Accessed 10 Jan 2020.
Carnevale AP, Strohl J. Separate and unequal: how higher education reinforces the intergenerational reproduction of white racial privilege. Georgetown University. Public Policy Institute Center on Education and the Workforce. 2013. Available from: https://cew.georgetown.edu/cew-reports/separate-unequal/. Accessed 15 January 2020.
Carnevale AP, Fascules ME, Quinn MC, Campbell KP. Born to win, schooled to lose: why equally talented students don’t get equal chances to be all they can be. 2019. Georgetown University. Public Policy Institute Center on Education and the Workforce. Available from: https://cew.georgetown.edu/cew-reports/schooled2lose/. Accessed 15 January 2019.
Daley S, Wingard DL, Reznik V. Improving the retention of underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicine. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98(9):1435–40.
Addams AN, Bletzinger RB, Sondheimer HM, White SE, Johnson LM. Roadmap to diversity: integrating holistic review practices into medical school admission processes. 2010; Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges. Available from: https://store.aamc.org/downloadable/download/sample/sample_id/195/. Accessed 22 Jan 2020.
Capers Q, McDougle L, Clinchot DM. Strategies for achieving diversity through medical school admissions. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2018;29(1):9–18.
Bowman NA, Bastedo MN. What role may admissions office diversity and practices play in equitable decisions? Res High Educ. 2018;59(4):430–47.
Tunson J, Boatright D, Oberfoell S, Bakes K, Angerhofer C, Lowenstein S, et al. Increasing resident diversity in an emergency medicine residency program: a pilot intervention with three principal strategies. Acad Med. 2016;91(7):958–61.
Witzburg RA, Sondheimer HM. Holistic review--shaping the medical profession one applicant at a time. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(17):1565–7.
Boatright D, Ross D, O’Connor P, Moore E, Nunez-Smith M. Racial disparities in medical student membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(5):659–65.
Edmond MB, Deschenes JL, Eckler M, Wenzel RP. Racial bias in using USMLE Step 1 scores to grant internal medicine residency interviews. Acad Med. 2001;76(12):1253–6.
Ku MC, Li YE, Prober C, Valantine H, Girod SC. Decisions, decisions: how program diversity influences residency program choice. J Am Coll Surg. 2011;213(2):294–305.
Anderson N, Boatright D, Reisman A. Blackface in white space: using admissions to address racism in medical education. J Gen Intern Med. 2020;35(10):3060–2.
Fitzsousa E, Anderson N, Reisman A. “This institution was never meant for me”: the impact of institutional historical portraiture on medical students. J Gen Intern Med. 2019;34(12):2738–9.
Kowalczyk L. In an about-face, hospital will disperse portraits of past white male luminaries, put the focus on diversity. Boston Globe. 2018. Metro. Available from: https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2018/06/13/about-face-hospital-will-disperse-portraits-past-white-male-luminaries-put-focus-diversity/0pICgbpsw7QoHFFJQQEZOJ/story.html. Accessed 25 Jan 2019.
Mitchell S. A case study in portraiture: Stephen Coit’s paintings add diversity, context to Harvard’s walls. The Harvard Gazette. 2020. Campus and Community. Available from: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/01/portrait-project-adds-diversity-to-harvards-hallowed-walls/. Accessed 20 Jan 2020.
Mintz, L., Yorke H. Top UK university to swap portraits of bearded white scholars with wall of diversity. The Telegraph. 2017. Education. Available from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2017/07/14/top-uk-university-replaces-busts-portraits-bearded-white-scholars/. Accessed 20 Jan 2020.
Bristow LR, Butler AS, Smedley BD. In the nation’s compelling interest: ensuring diversity in the health-care workforce. Institute of Medicine, Board of Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Institutional and Policy- level Strategies for Increasing Diversity of the US Healthcare Workforce. Washington, DC:National Academies Press; 2004. p. 172.
Coates TN. The case for reparations. The Atlantic. 2014;313(5):54–71.