Transgender people face unique challenges when accessing health care, including stigma and discrimination. Most residency programs devote little time to this marginalized population.
The authors developed a 90-min workshop to enhance residents’ ability to empathize with and professionally treat transgender patients. Attendees completed pre-, post, and 90-day follow-up surveys to assess perceived empathy, knowledge, comfort, interview skill, and motivation for future learning.
Twenty-two residents (64.7 %) completed pre- and post-workshop surveys; 90.9 % of these completed the 90-day follow-up. Compared to baseline, there were statistically significant post-workshop increases in perceived empathy, knowledge, comfort, and motivation for future learning. However on 90-day follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences across any of the five domains, compared to baseline.
This workshop produced significant short-term increases in resident professionalism toward transgender patients. However, extended follow-up results highlight the limitations of one-time interventions and call for recurrent programming to yield durable improvements.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Institute of Medicine. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2011.
Conron KJ, Scott G, Stowell GS, Landers SJ. Transgender health in Massachusetts: results from a household probability sample of adults. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(1):118–22.
Association of American Medical Colleges. Institutional programs and educational activities to address the needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students and patients. Washington, D.C.; 2007.
American Medical Association. Eliminating health disparities: promoting awareness and education of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health issues in medical education. https://www.ama-assn.org/ssl3/ecomm/PolicyFinderForm.pl?site=www.ama-assn.org&uri=/resources/html/PolicyFinder/policyfiles/HnE/H-295.878.HTM. Accessed 9 Dec 2015.
American Psychiatric Association. Position statement on access to care for transgender and gender variant individuals. 2012. http://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Learn/Archives/Position-2012-Transgender-Gender-Variant-Access-Care.pdf. Accessed 16 Dec 2015.
Ali N, Fleisher W, Erickson J. Psychiatrists’ and psychiatry residents’ attitudes toward transgender people. Acad Psychiatry. 2015.
Obedin-Maliver J, Goldsmith ES, Stewart L, et al. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related content in undergraduate medical education. JAMA. 2011;306(9):971–7.
Kitts RL. Barriers to optimal care between physicians and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescent patients. J Homosex. 2010;57(6):730–47.
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medication Education. Competency definitions and recommended practice performance tools. 2007. https://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/Portals/0/PFAssets/ProgramResources/430_CompetencyDefinitions_RO_ED_10182007.pdf. Accessed 14 Dec 2015.
Howard GS. Response-shift bias: a problem in evaluating interventions with pre/post self-reports. Eval Rev. 1980;4(1):93–106.
The authors wish to thank Dr. Jack Pula, Dr. Laura Erickson-Schroth, and Renato Barucco for serving as workshop facilitators; the Columbia Psychiatry Scholarly Project Workgroup for assistance in study design; the NYSPI/Columbia University LGBT Health Initiative for assistance in workshop development; and the New York Presbyterian (Columbia University)/NYSPI adult psychiatry residents for their participation in this evaluation.
The NYSPI IRB determined that this study did not meet the criteria for human subjects research.
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Kidd, J.D., Bockting, W., Cabaniss, D.L. et al. Special-“T” Training: Extended Follow-up Results from a Residency-Wide Professionalism Workshop on Transgender Health. Acad Psychiatry 40, 802–806 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-016-0570-7
- Transgender persons
- Internship and residency
- Medical education