Listening to Depression and Suicide Risk in Medical Students: the Healer Education Assessment and Referral (HEAR) Program
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- Downs, N., Feng, W., Kirby, B. et al. Acad Psychiatry (2014) 38: 547. doi:10.1007/s40596-014-0115-x
A growing body of literature documents high rates of burnout, depression, and suicidal ideation among physicians and medical students. Barriers to seeking mental health treatment in this group include concerns about time, stigma, confidentiality, and potential career impact. The authors describe a 4-year trial of the Healer Education Assessment and Referral (HEAR) program, designed to increase mental health services utilization (MHSU) and decrease suicide risk (SR) as assessed by an Interactive Screening Program (ISP)at one US medical school.
Over a 4-year period, medical students were engaged in face-to-face, campus-wide, educational group programs and were invited to complete an individual, online, and anonymous survey. This survey contained the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale to assess depression and items to identify suicidal thoughts and behaviors, substance use, distressing emotional states, and the use of mental health treatment. Students who engaged in this ISP by corresponding electronically with a counselor after completing the survey were assessed and when indicated, referred to further treatment.
The HEAR program was delivered to 1,008 medical students. Thirty-four percent (343/1,008) completed the online screening portion. Almost 8 % of respondents met the criteria for high/significant SR upon analysis of the completed screens. Ten out of 13 of the students with SR who dialogued with a counselor were not already receiving mental health treatment, indicating that this anonymous ISP identified a high proportion of an untreated, at risk, and potentially suicidal population. MHSU among medical students who completed the survey was 11.5 % in year 1 and 15.0 % by year 4. SR among medical students was 8.8 % in year 1 and 6.2 % in year 4 as assessed by the ISP.
This novel interventional program identified at risk, potentially suicidal medical students at one institution. Based on this single-site experience, we suggest that future multisite studies incorporate a comparison group, acquire baseline (prematriculation) data regarding MHSU and SR, and use an individualized yet anonymous identification system to measure changes in individual participants’ mental health status over time.