Purpose of Review
Polluting industries are more likely to be located in low-income communities of color who also experience greater social stressors that may make them more vulnerable than others to the health impacts of toxic chemical exposures. We describe recent developments in assessing pollutant exposures and health threats posed by industrial facilities using or releasing synthetic chemicals to nearby communities in the U.S.
More people are living near oil and gas development due to the expansion of unconventional extraction techniques as well as near industrial animal operations, both with suggestive evidence of increased exposure to hazardous pollutants and adverse health effects. Legacy contamination continues to adversely impact a new generation of residents in fenceline communities, with recent studies documenting exposures to toxic metals and poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Researchers are also giving consideration to acute exposures resulting from inadvertent industrial chemical releases, including those resulting from extreme weather events linked to climate change. Natural experiments of industrial closures or cleanups provide compelling evidence that exposures from industry harm the health of nearby residents.
New and legacy industries, coupled with climate change, present unique health risks to communities living near industry due to the release of toxic chemicals. Cumulative impacts from multiple stressors faced by environmental justice communities may amplify these adverse effects.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
Collins MB, Munoz I, JaJa J. Linking ‘toxic outliers’ to environmental justice communities. Environ Res Lett. 2016;11(1):015004. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/015004.
Banzhaf S, Ma L, Timmins C. Environmental justice: the economics of race, place, and pollution. J Econ Perspect. 2019;33(1):185–208.
Cushing L, Faust J, August LM, Cendak R, Wieland W, Alexeeff G. Racial/ethnic disparities in cumulative environmental health impacts in California: evidence from a statewide environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1). Am J Public Health. 2015;105(11):2341–8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302643.
Mikati I, Benson AF, Luben TJ, Sacks JD, Richmond-Bryant J. Disparities in distribution of particulate matter emission sources by race and poverty status. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(4):480–5. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2017.304297.
Wing S, Horton RA, Muhammad N, Grant GR, Tajik M, Thu K. Integrating epidemiology, education, and organizing for environmental justice: community health effects of industrial hog operations. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(8):1390–7.
O’Rourke D, Macey GP. Community environmental policing: assessing new strategies of public participation in environmental regulation. J Policy Anal Manag. 2003;22(3):383–414.
Shonkoff SB, Hays J, Finkel ML. Environmental public health dimensions of shale and tight gas development. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122(8):787–95. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307866.
Johnston JE, Lim E, Roh H. Impact of upstream oil extraction and environmental public health: a review of the evidence. Sci Total Environ. 2019;657:187–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.483.
Administration UEI. Crude Oil Production: US Department of Energy 2018.
Colborn T, Kwiatkowski C, Schultz K, Bachran M. Natural gas operations from a public health perspective. Hum Ecol Risk Assess. 2011;17(5):1039–56.
Stringfellow WT, Camarillo MK, Domen JK, Sandelin WL, Varadharajan C, Jordan PD, et al. Identifying chemicals of concern in hydraulic fracturing fluids used for oil production. Environ Pollut. 2017;220(Pt A):413–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.082.
Kassotis CD, Iwanowicz LR, Akob DM, Cozzarelli IM, Mumford AC, Orem WH, et al. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site. Sci Total Environ. 2016;557-558:901–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.113.
Maloney KO, Baruch-Mordo S, Patterson LA, Nicot JP, Entrekin SA, Fargione JE, et al. Unconventional oil and gas spills: materials, volumes, and risks to surface waters in four states of the U.S. Sci Total Environ. 2017;581–582:369–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.142.
Czolowski ED, Santoro RL, Srebotnjak T, Shonkoff SBC. Toward consistent methodology to quantify populations in proximity to oil and gas development: a national spatial analysis and review. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125(8):086004. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp1535.
Elliott EG, Ma X, Leaderer BP, McKay LA, Pedersen CJ, Wang C, et al. A community-based evaluation of proximity to unconventional oil and gas wells, drinking water contaminants, and health symptoms in Ohio. Environ Res. 2018;167:550–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.08.022.
Adgate JL, Goldstein BD, McKenzie LM. Potential public health hazards, exposures and health effects from unconventional natural gas development. Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(15):8307–20. https://doi.org/10.1021/es404621d.
Blair BD, Brindley S, Dinkeloo E, McKenzie LM, Adgate JL. Residential noise from nearby oil and gas well construction and drilling. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2018;28(6):538–47. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-018-0039-8.
Allshouse WB, McKenzie LM, Barton K, Brindley S, Adgate JL. Community noise and air pollution exposure during the development of a multi-well oil and gas pad. Environ Sci Technol. 2019;53(12):7126–35.
Richburg CM, Slagley J. Noise concerns of residents living in close proximity to hydraulic fracturing sites in Southwest Pennsylvania. Public Health Nurs (Boston, Mass). 2019;36(1):3–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12540.
Collier-Oxandale A, Hannigan MP, Casey JG, Piedrahita R, Ortega J, Halliday H, et al. Assessing a low-cost methane sensor quantification system for use in complex rural and urban environments. Atmos Meas Tech Discuss. 2018:1–35.
Garcia-Gonzales DA, Shonkoff SBC, Hays J, Jerrett M. Hazardous air pollutants associated with upstream oil and natural gas development: a critical synthesis of current peer-reviewed literature. Annu Rev Public Health. 2019;40(1):283–304. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043715.
Franklin M, Chau K, Cushing LJ, Johnston JE. Characterizing flaring from unconventional oil and gas operations in South Texas using satellite observations. Environ Sci Technol. 2019;53(4):2220–8. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b05355.
Paulik LB, Hobbie KA, Rohlman D, Smith BW, Scott RP, Kincl L, et al. Environmental and individual PAH exposures near rural natural gas extraction. Environ Pollut. 2018;241:397–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.010.
Caron-Beaudoin É, Valter N, Chevrier J, Ayotte P, Frohlich K, Verner M-A. Gestational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Northeastern British Columbia, Canada: a pilot study. Environ Int. 2018;110:131–8.
Caron-Beaudoin É, Bouchard M, Wendling G, Barroso A, Bouchard MF, Ayotte P, et al. Urinary and hair concentrations of trace metals in pregnant women from Northeastern British Columbia, Canada: a pilot study. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2019;29:613–23. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-019-0144-3.
Hill EL. Shale gas development and infant health: evidence from Pennsylvania. J Health Econ. 2018;61:134–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2018.07.004.
Stacy SL, Brink LL, Larkin JC, Sadovsky Y, Goldstein BD, Pitt BR, et al. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0126425-e. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126425.
McKenzie LM, Guo R, Witter RZ, Savitz DA, Newman LS, Adgate JL. Birth outcomes and maternal residential proximity to natural gas development in rural Colorado. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;4:412–7. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306722.
Walker Whitworth K, Kaye Marshall A, Symanski E. Drilling and production activity related to unconventional gas development and severity of preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect. 2018;126, 037006(3).
Janitz AE, Dao HD, Campbell JE, Stoner JA, Peck JD. The association between natural gas well activity and specific congenital anomalies in Oklahoma, 1997–2009. Environ Int. 2019;122:381–8.
Willis MD, Jusko TA, Halterman JS, Hill EL. Unconventional natural gas development and pediatric asthma hospitalizations in Pennsylvania. Environ Res. 2018;166:402–8.
Denham A, Willis M, Zavez A, Hill E. Unconventional natural gas development and hospitalizations: evidence from Pennsylvania, United States, 2003–2014. Public Health. 2019;168:17–25.
Casey JA, Wilcox HC, Hirsch AG, Pollak J, Schwartz BS. Associations of unconventional natural gas development with depression symptoms and disordered sleep in Pennsylvania. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):11375.
• McKenzie LM, Crooks J, Peel JL, Blair BD, Brindley S, Allshouse WB, et al. Relationships between indicators of cardiovascular disease and intensity of oil and natural gas activity in Northeastern Colorado. Environ Res. 2019;170:56–64 First publication to take physiological measurements of residents near fracking sites and assess cardiovascular outcomes.
Kelly-Reif K, Wing S. Urban-rural exploitation: an underappreciated dimension of environmental injustice. J Rural Stud. 2016;47:350–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.03.010.
McKenzie LM, Allshouse WB, Burke T, Blair BD, Adgate JL. Population size, growth, and environmental justice near oil and gas wells in Colorado. Environ Sci Technol. 2016:acs.est.6b04391–acs.est.6b. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b04391.
Schinasi L, Horton RA, Guidry VT, Wing S, Marshall SW, Morland KB. Air pollution, lung function, and physical symptoms in communities near concentrated swine feeding operations. Epidemiology. 2011;22(2):208.
Guidry VT, Kinlaw AC, Johnston J, Hall D, Wing S. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations at three middle schools near industrial livestock facilities. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2017;27(2):167–74.
Hatcher SM, Rhodes SM, Stewart JR, Silbergeld E, Pisanic N, Larsen J, et al. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among industrial hog operation workers, community residents, and children living in their households: North Carolina, USA. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125(4):560–9. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp35.
Casey JA, Kim BF, Larsen J, Price LB, Nachman KE. Industrial food animal production and community health. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2015;2(3):259–71.
Cole D, Todd L, Wing S. Concentrated swine feeding operations and public health: a review of occupational and community health effects. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(8):685.
Wing S, Wolf S. Intensive livestock operations, health, and quality of life among eastern North Carolina residents. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(3):233.
Wing S, Cole D, Grant G. Environmental injustice in North Carolina’s hog industry. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(3):225–31.
Kravchenko J, Rhew SH, Akushevich I, Agarwal P, Lyerly HK. Mortality and health outcomes in North Carolina communities located in close proximity to hog concentrated animal feeding operations. N C Med J. 2018;79(5):278–88. https://doi.org/10.18043/ncm.79.5.278.
Schultz AA, Peppard P, Gangnon RE, Malecki KMC. Residential proximity to concentrated animal feeding operations and allergic and respiratory disease. Environ Int. 2019;130:104911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.104911.
Rasmussen SG, Casey JA, Bandeen-Roche K, Schwartz BS. Proximity to industrial food animal production and asthma exacerbations in Pennsylvania, 2005-2012. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(4):362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040362.
Loftus C, Afsharinejad Z, Sampson P, Vedal S, Torres E, Arias G, et al. Estimated time-varying exposures to air emissions from animal feeding operations and childhood asthma. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.09.003.
Poulsen MN, Pollak J, Sills DL, Casey JA, Nachman KE, Cosgrove SE, et al. High-density poultry operations and community-acquired pneumonia in Pennsylvania. Environ Epidemiol. 2018;2(2):e013. https://doi.org/10.1097/ee9.0000000000000013.
Heaney CD, Myers K, Wing S, Hall D, Baron D, Stewart JR. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations. Sci Total Environ. 2015;511:676–83.
Allen S, Fanucchi MV, McCormick LC, Zierold KM. The search for environmental justice: the story of North Birmingham. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(12):2117.
Kimbrough DE, Steele NL, Suffet I. Off-site forensic determination of airborne elemental emissions by multi-media analysis: a case study at two seconday lead smelters. Environ Sci Technol. 1996;30(12):3649.
Dietrich M, Huling J, Krekeler MPS. Metal pollution investigation of Goldman Park, Middletown Ohio: evidence for steel and coal pollution in a high child use setting. Sci Total Environ. 2018;618:1350–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.246.
Dietrich M, Wolfe A, Burke M, Krekeler MPS. The first pollution investigation of road sediment in Gary, Indiana: anthropogenic metals and possible health implications for a socioeconomically disadvantaged area. Environ Int. 2019;128:175–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.04.042.
Diawara MM, Shrestha S, Carsella J, Farmer S. Smelting remains a public health risk nearly a century later: a case study in Pueblo, Colorado, USA. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(5):932. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050932.
Johnston JE, Franklin M, Roh H, Austin C, Arora M. Lead and arsenic in shed deciduous teeth of children living near a lead-acid battery smelter. Environ Sci Technol. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b00429.
Johnston JE, Lopez M, Gribble MO, Gutschow W, Austin C, Arora M. A collaborative approach to assess legacy pollution in communities near a lead–acid battery smelter: the “Truth Fairy” project. Health Educ Behav. 2019;46(1_suppl):71S–80S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198119859406.
Johnston JE, Hricko A. Industrial lead poisoning in Los Angeles: anatomy of a public health failure. Environ Justice. 2017;10(5):162–7.
Haynes EN, Sucharew H, Hilbert TJ, Kuhnell P, Spencer A, Newman NC, et al. Impact of air manganese on child neurodevelopment in East Liverpool, Ohio. Neurotoxicology. 2018;64:94–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2017.09.001.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Fourth national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals, updated tables, February 2015. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2015. p. 91–105.
Sun M, Arevalo E, Strynar M, Lindstrom A, Richardson M, Kearns B, et al. Legacy and emerging perfluoroalkyl substances are important drinking water contaminants in the cape fear river watershed of North Carolina. Environ Sci Technol Lett. 2016;3(12):415–9. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00398.
C8 Science Panel. C8 Science Panel Homepage. 2005.
Khalil N, Lee M, Steenland K. Epidemiological findings. In: DeWitt JC, editor. Toxicological effects of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 305–35.
•• Worley RR, Moore SM, Tierney BC, Ye X, Calafat AM, Campbell S, et al. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human serum and urine samples from a residentially exposed community. Environ Int. 2017;106:135–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.06.007Assessment of multiple PFAS compounds in residents of an environmental justice community due to a nearby manufacturing site’s impact on drinking water sources.
Hu XC, Andrews DQ, Lindstrom AB, Bruton TA, Schaider LA, Grandjean P, et al. Detection of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. drinking water linked to industrial sites, military fire training areas, and wastewater treatment plants. Environ Sci Technol Lett. 2016;3(10):344–50. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00260.
Remy LL, Clay T, Byers V, Rosenfeld PE. Hospital, health, and community burden after oil refinery fires, Richmond, California 2007 and 2012. Environ Health. 2019;18(1):48. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0484-4.
D’Andrea MA, Reddy GK. Detrimental health effects of benzene exposure in adults after a flaring disaster at the BP refinery plant in Texas City. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2016;10(2):233–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2015.160.
D’Andrea MA, Reddy GK. Adverse health complaints of adults exposed to benzene after a flaring disaster at the BP refinery facility in Texas City, Texas. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2018;12(2):232–40. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2017.59.
Young S, Balluz L, Malilay J. Natural and technologic hazardous material releases during and after natural disasters: a review. Sci Total Environ. 2004;322(1–3):3–20.
Agency USEP. Summary of assessments at Superfund National Priority List Sites. Washginton, DC. 2016. https://archive.epa.gov/katrina/web/html/superfund.html. Accessed 10 July 2019.
Santella N, Steinberg LJ, Sengul H. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina. Risk Anal. 2010;30(4):635–49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01390.x.
Reible DD, Haas CN, Pardue JH, Walsh WJ. Toxic and contaminant concerns generated by Hurricane Katrina. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers; 2006.
Manuel J. In Katrina’s wake. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(1):A32–A9. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.114-a32.
Ruckart PZ, Orr MF, Lanier K, Koehler A. Hazardous substances releases associated with hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas. J Hazard Mater. 2008;159(1):53–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.07.124.
Lester S, Rabe A. Superfund: in the eye of the storm. Falls Church: Center for Health, Environment & Justice; 2010.
Lubick N. Natural disasters: arsenic spike from Ike. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117(7):A294-A. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.117-a294a.
Agency USEP. Historical information about the response. 2016. https://archive.epa.gov/region02/sandy/web/html/history.html.
Wilson RP. Hurricane Sandy: environmental impact and agency efforts. Environ Claims J. 2014;26(2):126–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/10406026.2014.868741.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency OotA. EPA Response To The AP’s Misleading Story. 2017.
Nicole W. Wristbands for research: using wearable sensors to collect exposure data after Hurricane Harvey. Environ Health Perspect. 2018;126(4):042001. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3131.
Dempsey M, Carpenter J. Arkema documents: planning, mechanical failures led to Harvey chemical fires. Houston Chronicle. 2017;15:2017.
Agency USEP. Evaluation of remedy resilience at Superfund NPL and SAA sites. In: Management OoLaE, editor. Washington, DC, 2018.
•• Garcia-Lopez GA. The multiple layers of environmental injustice in contexts of (un)natural disasters: the case of Puerto Rico post-Hurricane Maria. Environmental Justice. 2018;11(3):101–8. https://doi.org/10.1089/env.2017.0045Critical assessment of multiple burdens on communities after Hurricane Maria and inequities in the recovery efforts.
Rice K. Hurricane María has renewed Puerto Rico’s fight against coal ash. HuffPost. 2018;17:2018.
Agency USEP. National Priorities List Sites assessed after Hurricane Florence. Washington, DC, 2018.
Vengosh A, Cowan EA, Coyte RM, Kondash AJ, Wang Z, Brandt JE, et al. Evidence for unmonitored coal ash spills in Sutton Lake, North Carolina: implications for contamination of lake ecosystems. Sci Total Environ. 2019;686:1090–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.188.
Bruggers J. In Florence’s floodwater: sewage, coal ash and hog waste lagoon spills Inside Climate News 2018 September 18, 2019.
Christine Cardinal MPHJ, Yue XM. Implications of Hurricane Harvey on environmental public health in Harris County, Texas. J Environ Health. 2018;81(2):24–32.
• Horney JA, Casillas GA, Baker E, Stone KW, Kirsch KR, Camargo K, et al. Comparing residential contamination in a Houston environmental justice neighborhood before and after Hurricane Harvey. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0192660 Community-engaged research demonstrates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants linked to combustion were geographically redistributed by flooding during Hurricane Harvey in a heavily industrialized neighborhood of Houston.
Kiaghadi A, Rifai HS. Physical, chemical, and microbial quality of floodwaters in Houston following Hurricane Harvey. Environ Sci Technol. 2019;53(9):4832–40. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b00792.
• Subramanian R, Ellis A, Torres-Delgado E, Tanzer R, Malings C, Rivera F, et al. Air quality in Puerto Rico in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria: a case study on the use of lower cost air quality monitors. ACS Earth Space Chem. 2018;2(11):1179–86. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00079While reference monitors were offline, the authors used low-cost air quality monitors to characterize increased air pollution due to reliance on backup generators in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria.
Stafford SL, Renaud AD. Measuring the potential for toxic exposure from storm surge and sea-level rise: analysis of coastal Virginia. Nat Hazard Rev. 2019;20(1):04018024. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000315.
Jaime M, Camilo OJ, Eddie B, Ryan C, F CC, Erika M, et al. Fugitive chemicals and environmental justice: a model for environmental monitoring following climate-related disasters. Environ Justice. 2018;11(3):95–100. https://doi.org/10.1089/env.2017.0044.
•• Casey JA, Karasek D, Ogburn EL, Goin DE, Dang K, Braveman PA, et al. Retirements of coal and oil power plants in California: association with reduced preterm birth among populations nearby. Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(8):1586–94. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy110Leverages a natural experiment study design to show the improvements to health of fenceline communities after the closure of power plants.
Casey JA, Gemmill A, Karasek D, Ogburn EL, Goin DE, Morello-Frosch R. Increase in fertility following coal and oil power plant retirements in California. Environ Health. 2018;17(1):44–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-018-0388-8.
Burr WS, Dales R, Liu L, Stieb D, Smith-Doiron M, Jovic B, et al. The Oakville oil refinery closure and its influence on local hospitalizations: a natural experiment on sulfur dioxide. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092029.
Davis B, McDermott S, McCarter M, Ortaglia A. Population-based mortality data suggests remediation is modestly effective in two Montana Superfund counties. Environ Geochem Health. 2019;41(2):803–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0175-z.
Lichter DT, Brown DL. Rural America in an urban society: changing spatial and social boundaries. Annu Rev Sociol. 2011;37:565–92.
Brugge D, Hynes PH. Community research in environmental health: studies in science, advocacy, and ethics. Aldershot: Ashgate; 2005.
Petersen D, Minkler M, Vásquez VB, Baden AC. Community-based participatory research as a tool for policy change: a case study of the Southern California environmental justice collaborative. Rev Policy Res. 2006;23(2):339–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2006.00204.x.
Balazs CL, Morello-Frosch R. The three Rs : how community-based participatory and reach of science. Environ Justice. 2013;6(1):9–16. https://doi.org/10.1089/env.2012.0017.
The authors thank Khang Chau at the University of Southern California for assistance in creating Figure 1.
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Johnston was funded, in part, by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (no. 5P30ES007048). Dr. Cushing reports that this work was partially funded by the JPB Foundation Environmental Health Fellowship.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Synthetic Chemicals and Health
About this article
Cite this article
Johnston, J., Cushing, L. Chemical Exposures, Health, and Environmental Justice in Communities Living on the Fenceline of Industry. Curr Envir Health Rpt 7, 48–57 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-020-00263-8
- Environmental justice
- Climate justice
- Oil and gas development
- Industrial pollution
- Natural technological disasters