Purpose of Review
The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health?
There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem.
The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.
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Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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We thank Drs. Marc Weisskopf and Zeyan Liew for their comments and suggestions.
This work is supported in part by the NIEHS grants R00ES021470 (AP, HH), P01ES022841, and R01ES027051, the US EPA grants RD-83564301 and RD-83543301 (TJW, RMF, AW), NLM grant K01LM012381 (MS, HH, and AW), Preterm Birth Initiative at UCSF (TJW, AP, MS, and HH), the March of Dimes Prematurity Research Center at Stanford (MS and AW), and Burroughs Wellcome Fund (MS).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Susceptibility Factors in Environmental Health
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Huang, H., Wang, A., Morello-Frosch, R. et al. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors. Curr Envir Health Rpt 5, 88–99 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-018-0180-5
- Cumulative risk
- Combined effects
- Environmental stressors
- Non-chemical stressors
- Social stressors
- Quantitative modeling