Sex-Specific Epigenetics: Implications for Environmental Studies of Brain and Behavior
Purpose of Review
This review discusses the current state of knowledge on sex differences in the epigenetic regulation in the brain and highlights its relevance for the environmental studies of brain and behavior.
Recent evidence shows that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the control of brain sexual differentiation and in memory-enhancing effects of estradiol in females. In addition, several studies have implicated epigenetic dysregulation as an underlying mechanism for sex-specific neurobehavioral effects of environmental exposures.
The area of sex-specific neurepigenetics has a great potential to improve our understanding of brain function in health and disease. Future neuropigenetic studies will require the inclusion of males and females and would ideally account for the fluctuating hormonal status in females which is likely to affect the epigenome. The implementation of cutting-edge methods that include epigenomic characterization of specific cell types using latest next-generation sequencing approaches will further advance the area.
KeywordsEpigenetics Sex-specific Environmental exposures Sexual differentiation Sex hormones Brain disorders
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Marija Kundakovic declares that there are no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
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