Statistical Approaches to Address Multi-Pollutant Mixtures and Multiple Exposures: the State of the Science
Purpose of Review
The purpose of this review is to describe the most recent statistical approaches to estimate the effect of multi-pollutant mixtures or multiple correlated exposures on human health.
The health effects of environmental chemicals or air pollutants have been widely described. Often, there exists a complex mixture of different substances, potentially highly correlated with each other and with other (environmental) stressors. Single-exposure approaches do not allow disentangling effects of individual factors and fail to detect potential interactions between exposures. In the last years, sophisticated methods have been developed to investigate the joint or independent health effects of multi-pollutant mixtures or multiple environmental exposures.
A classification of the most recent methods is proposed. A non-technical description of each method is provided, together with epidemiological applications and operational details for implementation with standard software.
KeywordsCorrelated variables Environmental exposures Epidemiology Health Multi-pollutant
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Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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