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Manganese Exposure and Cognition Across the Lifespan: Contemporary Review and Argument for Biphasic Dose–Response Health Effects

Abstract

Manganese (Mn) is both an essential micronutrient and potential neurotoxicant. This dual role underlies a growing body of literature demonstrating that Mn exhibits a biphasic dose–response relationship with neurocognitive outcomes. We reviewed recent epidemiologic studies from 2007 to 2016 that investigated the relationship between Mn exposure and cognitive outcomes across the lifespan: early life, school-aged children, and adulthood. In total, 27 research articles were included in this review: 12 pediatric and 15 adult studies (10 occupational and five environmental exposures). The majority of these studies provided evidence of the negative effects of Mn exposure on cognition. The pediatric literature provides evidence that both high and low levels of Mn are negatively associated with intellectual development. Future Mn research should include examination of non-linear relationships and multiple neurotoxicants across the lifespan and particularly during critical developmental windows.

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Fig. 1

Abbreviations

BSID:

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

CANTAB:

Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

CAVLT:

Children’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test

CCTT:

Children’s Color Trails Test

CDIIT:

Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers

CFS:

Cognitive Function Scanner

CPT:

Continuous Performance Test

ETS:

Environmental tobacco smoke

IQ:

Intelligence quotient

K-AVLT:

Korean Auditory Verbal Learning Test

K-CFT:

Korean Complex Figure Test

LDES:

Learning Disability Evaluation Scale

MDI:

Mental Development Index

MMSE:

Mini-Mental State Examination

MoCA:

Montreal Cognitive Assessment

MR:

Matrix reasoning

NAB:

Neuropsychological Assessment Battery

PI:

Pallidal Index

RAVLT:

Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test

RCPM:

Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrix

RSPM:

Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrix

TAVIS:

The Brazilian Attention Test

TMT:

Trailing Making Test

WAIS:

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

WCST:

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

WISC:

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

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Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of outstanding importance

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Correspondence to Erin N. Haynes.

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Kaitlin Vollet, Erin N. Haynes, and Kim N. Dietrich declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors in the conduct of this literature review.

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Vollet, K., Haynes, E.N. & Dietrich, K.N. Manganese Exposure and Cognition Across the Lifespan: Contemporary Review and Argument for Biphasic Dose–Response Health Effects. Curr Envir Health Rpt 3, 392–404 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-016-0108-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-016-0108-x

Keywords

  • Pediatric
  • Manganese
  • Dose–response
  • Literature review
  • Occupational
  • Cognition