Current Environmental Health Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 107–117 | Cite as

Perchlorate and Diet: Human Exposures, Risks, and Mitigation Strategies

  • Maricel V. Maffini
  • Leonardo Trasande
  • Thomas G. Neltner
Food, Health, and the Environment (KE Nachman, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Food, Health, and the Environment


Perchlorate is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that interferes with the normal functioning of the thyroid gland. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation may alter fetal brain development. Perchlorate contamination is widespread: it is present in the body of all Americans tested and the majority of foods tested. The main sources of food contamination appear to be hypochlorite bleach, a disinfectant and sanitizer, that when poorly managed quickly degrades to perchlorate and perchlorate-laden plastic food packaging for dry food or localized contamination from manufacturing or processing of the chemical. Eliminating perchlorate from food packaging and improving bleach management, such as reducing concentration and storage time and temperature, would result in reduced perchlorate contamination of food and water.


Perchlorate Neurodevelopment Food contamination Drinking water Food packaging Bleach Endocrine disruption 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Maricel V. Maffini is coauthor of the food additive petition pending before the US Food and Drug Administration requesting that the agency remove its approval of the use of perchlorate in food contact substances.

Thomas G. Neltner is a coordinator and coauthor of the food additive petition pending before the US Food and Drug Administration requesting that the agency remove its approval of the use of perchlorate in food contact substances.

Leonardo Trasande declares he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of outstanding importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maricel V. Maffini
    • 1
  • Leonardo Trasande
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Thomas G. Neltner
    • 6
  1. 1.GermantownUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Medicine and Population HealthNYU School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.NYU Wagner School of Public Service\New YorkUSA
  4. 4.NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human DevelopmentNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.NYU Global Institute of Public HealthNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.Chemicals Policy Director, Environmental Defense FundWashingtonUSA

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