Skip to main content
Log in

The Effect of Garlic Pills on Serum Nitric Oxide and Preeclampsia Prevention in Healthy Nulliparous Pregnant Women: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Journal of Fetal Medicine


The present study aimed to determine the effect of garlic pills on serum nitric oxide and preeclampsia prevention in healthy nulliparous pregnant women. This randomized clinical trial was conducted among 215 nulliparous pregnant women. The participants were assigned into control and intervention groups. The intervention and control groups received garlic pills and placebo, respectively for 16 weeks from 20 week of gestation. Serum nitric oxide was measured 12 weeks after the intervention. Women were followed up for preeclampsia until childbirth in several visits. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences software. The mean (standard deviation) of serum nitric oxide level was 151.4 (73.1) µmol in the intervention group and 124.1 (44.1) µmol in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.029). The prevalence of preeclampsia was 1 (1%) in the intervention group and 5 (5.2%) in the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.094). The use of garlic pills has a significant effect on the elevation of serum nitric oxide levels. Despite the absence of significant statistical differences between the two groups, garlic pills in comparison with placebo reduced the incidence of preeclampsia.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. World Health Organization. WHO recommendations for prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Geneva; 2013. p. 14–17.

  2. World Health Organization. Prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Geneva; 2011. p. 1–38.

  3. ACOG. Hypertension in pregnancy. Washington: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data; 2013. p. 17–33.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Fauvel JP. Hypertension during pregnancy: epidemiology, definition. Presse Med. 2016;45(7–8 Pt 1):618–21.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Soroori ZZ, Sharami SH, Faraji R. Seasonal variation of the onset of preeclampsia and eclampsia. J Res Med Sci. 2007;12(4):198–202.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Foo L, Tay J, Lees CC, McEniery CM, Wilkinson IB. Hypertension in pregnancy: natural history and treatment options. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015;17(5):545.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Matsubara K, Higaki T, Matsubara Y, Nawa A. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16(3):4600–14.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Polyzos N, Mauri D, Tsappi M, Tzioras S, Kamposioras K, Cortinovis I, et al. Combined vitamin C and E supplementation during pregnancy for preeclampsia prevention: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007;62(3):202–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Conde-Agudelo A, Romero R, Kusanovic JP, Hassan SS. Supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy for the prevention of preeclampsia and other adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(503):e1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Moosavi T, Zakavi A, Hosseinivaliki F, Yousef pour M, Fakhar M, Rafiei A, et al. Nutritional properties of garlic according to traditional and modern medicine: a review study. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2016;26(139):227–45.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Ried K, Fakler P. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance. Integr Blood Press Control. 2014;7:71–82.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Das I, Khan NS, Sooranna SR. Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basis for its therapeutic applications. Curr Med Res Opin. 1995;13(5):257–63.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Amagase H, Petesch BL, Matsuura H, Kasuga S, Itakura Y. Intake of garlic and its bioactive components. J Nutr. 2001;131:955–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Dugoua J-J. Herbal medicines and pregnancy. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2010;17(3):370–8.

    Google Scholar 

  15. ESCOP. Garlic 2017 [cited 2017 2017.5.5].

  16. Sharma R, Jaitawat A, Kantwa SM, Jain N, Rani D. Role of garlic and fenugreek during gestation and lactation: a review. UJERT. 2014;4(5):265–79.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Meher S, Duley L. Garlic for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;19(3):CD006065.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Hodžić J, Izetbegović S, Muračević B, Iriškić R, Štimjanin Jović H. Nitric oxide biosynthesis during normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. Med Glas. 2017;14(2):211–7.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Ziaei S, Hantoshzadeh S, Rezasoltani P, Lamyian M. The effect of garlic tablet on plasma lipids and platelet aggregation in nulliparous pregnants at high risk preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001;99:201–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Akbari N. The effect of garlic pills on the prevention of preeclampsia in primipara who are at risk. J Sabzevar Sch Med Sci. 2001;8(2):8–71.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Aalami-Harandi R, Karamali M, Asemi Z. The favorable effects of garlic intake on metabolic profiles, hs-CRP, biomarkers of oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015;28(17):2020–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was extracted from a postgraduate thesis registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT201602163027N33) and approved by the Ethics Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TBZMED.REC.1394.1028) onFebruary 1, 2016. The authors hereby thank all the participants; the staff of health centers in Rasht; Dr. Adel Montazeri, the laboratory technical director of the Razi and Hashmat Hospitals in Rasht and his staff, especially Ms. Rona Namazi and Ms. AtefehAlavi, and Dr.Abbas Momeni; the honorable staff of Dr. Momeni laboratory of Rudsar; and Mr. Janbaz, in charge of the blood bank of Rudsar, who have cooperated in the implementation of this research project.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Farzaneh Darvishi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The Authors declares that they have no conflict of interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sehhati Shafa’i, F., Darvishi, F., Abbasalizadeh, F. et al. The Effect of Garlic Pills on Serum Nitric Oxide and Preeclampsia Prevention in Healthy Nulliparous Pregnant Women: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. J. Fetal Med. 5, 213–219 (2018).

Download citation

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: