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Table 1 Indications for histopathological examination of the placenta

From: Gross Examination of the Placenta and Its Importance in Evaluating an Unexplained Intrauterine Fetal Demise

Maternal indications
Systemic disorders with clinical concerns for mother and infant, e.g., gestational diabetes on insulin, pre-gestational diabetes, collagen disease, seizures, hypertensive disorders, severe anemia
Premature delivery <34 weeks of gestation
Peri-partum fever and/or infection
Suspicion of infection with HIV, syphilis, TORCH
Unexplained third trimester bleeding
Unexplained or recurrent pregnancy complications (fetal growth restriction, still birth, spontaneous miscarriage)
Abruptio placenta
Thick and/or viscid meconium
Severe oligohydramnios
Non elective pregnancy termination
Fetal/neonatal indications
Still birth or perinatal death
Hydrops fetalis
Birth weight <10th centile
Major congenital anomalies, dysmorphic phenotype or abnormal karyotype
Twin growth discordancy >20 %
Multiple gestation with same sex infants and fused placentas
Infection or sepsis
Seizures
Compromised clinical conditions (cord blood pH < 7.0; apgar score <6 at 5 min; ventilator assistance for >10 min; severe anemia; hematocrit <35 %)
Placental indications
Physical abnormalities (shape abnormalities, infarct, mass, vascular thrombosis, retroplacental hematoma, amnion nodosum, abnormal coloration or opacification, malodor)
Small or large sized placenta
Umbilical cord lesions (thrombosis, torsion, true knot, single artery, absence of Wharton’s jelly)
Cord length <32 cm at term or abnormally long cord