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Development and characterization of stainless steel fiber-based copper-free brake liner formulation—A positive solution for steel fiber replacement

  • R. Vijay
  • D. Lenin SingaraveluEmail author
  • R. Jayaganthan
Open Access
Research Article


This study is on the development of drum brake liner for a multi-utility vehicle possessing a hydraulic brake system. The approach adopted was to vary seven weight percent in each friction composite formulation between steel fiber and stainless steel fiber. The friction composites developed were tested for physical, chemical, corrosive, mechanical, and thermal properties as well as tribological characteristics under near-actual conditions using an inertia dynamometer as per industrial standards. ANSYS analysis was performed to obtain the thermal stress distributions of the developed friction composites at maximum temperature rise during brake stops, and an extensive evaluation method was used to rank the composites. The study concludes that the brake factor of stainless steel fiber-based friction composites produce stable performance under all conditions, with a low liner temperature rise of 340°C and low thermal stresses (4.255294 MPa). In contrast, friction composites based on steel fiber initially deliver high performance, which deteriorate after a certain period due to high corrosion levels and a high temperature rise of 361°C, resulting in negative fade (−0.84%) and high thermal stresses (5.619102 MPa). The primary plateaus, secondary plateaus, back transfer of drum wear debris, and distribution of constituents on the worn surface of the developed composites’ resin matrix were identified and studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).


stainless steel fiber steel fiber brake liner friction composite 



The authors express their gratitudes to Mr. Samit Singhai of Kasturi Metal Composites Private Limited, Amravati, Maharashtra, India, for providing the steel and stainless fibers. The authors also thank the well-wisher(s) who helped in the manufacturing and testing of these friction composites.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Vijay
    • 1
  • D. Lenin Singaravelu
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Jayaganthan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Production EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Engineering DesignIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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