, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 93–116 | Cite as

Metal-containing nanomaterials as lubricant additives: State-of-the-art and future development

  • Igor E. UflyandEmail author
  • Vladimir A. Zhinzhilo
  • Victoria E. Burlakova
Open Access
Review Article


This review focuses on the effect of metal-containing nanomaterials on tribological performance in oil lubrication. The basic data on nanolubricants based on nanoparticles of metals, metal oxides, metal sulfides, nanocomposities, and rare-earth compounds are generalized. The influence of nanoparticle size, morphology, surface functionalization, and concentration on friction and wear is analyzed. The lubrication mechanisms of nanolubricants are discussed. The problems and prospects for the development of metal-containing nanomaterials as lubricant additives are considered. The bibliography includes articles published during the last five years.


coefficient of friction metal-containing nanomaterials nanolubricants nanoparticles wear 


  1. [1]
    Zhang Y, Chromik R. Self-Lubricating Composites. Menezes P L, Rohatgi P K, Omrani E, eds. Springer, Cham, 2018.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Tribocatalysis, Tribochemistry, and Tribocorrosion. Kajdas C, Hiratsuka K, eds. CRC, Pan Stanford, 2018.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Gnanasekaran D, Chavidi VP. Vegetable Oil based Biolubricants and Transformer Fluids. Springer, Singapore, 2018.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Darminesh S P, Sidik N A C, Najafi G, Mamat R, Ken T L, Asako Y. Recent development on biodegradable nanolubricant: A review. Int J Heat Mass Transf 86: 159–165 (2017)Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Tang Z, Li S. A review of recent developments of friction modifiers for liquid lubricants (2007-present). Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 18: 119–139 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Xiao H, Liu S. 2D nanomaterials as lubricant additive: A review. Mater Des 135: 319–332 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Liu L, Zhou M, Li X, Jin L, Su G, Mo Y, Li L, Zhu H, Tian Y. Research progress in application of 2D materials in liquid-phase lubrication system. Materials 11: 1314 (2018)Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Shahnazar S, Bagheri S, Hamid S B A. Enhancing lubricant properties by nanoparticle additives. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41: 3153–3170 (2016)Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Minami I. Molecular science of lubricant additives. Appl Sci 7: 445 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Mathew J, Joy J, George S C. Potential applications of nanotechnology in transportation: A review. J King Saud Univ Sci, (2018)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Kotia A, Rajkhowa P, Rao G S, Ghosh S K. Thermophysical and tribological properties of nanolubricants: A review. Heat Mass Transfer 54: 3493–3508 (2018)Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Guo W, Yin J, Qiu H, Guo Y, Wu H, Xue M. Friction of low-dimensional nanomaterial systems. Friction 2: 209–225 (2014)Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Gulzar M, Masjuki H H, Kalam M A, Varman M, Zulkifli N W M, Mufti R A, Zahid R. Tribological performance of nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives. J Nanopart Res 18: 223 (2016)Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Dang R K, Goyal D, Dhami S S, Chauhan A. Effect of nanoparticles based lubricants on static thermal behaviour of journal bearings: A review. Res J Eng Tech 8: 149–153 (2017)Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Dai W, Kheireddin B, Gao H, Liang H. Roles of nanoparticles in oil lubrication. Tribol Int 102: 88–98 (2016)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Ali M K A, Xianjun H. Improving the tribological behavior of internal combustion engines via the addition of nanoparticles to engine oils. Nanotechnol Rev 4: 347–358 (2015)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Kaviyarasu T, Vasanthan B. Improvement of tribological and thermal properties of engine lubricant by using nanomaterials. J Chem Pharm Sci (JCHPS) 7: 208–211 (2015)Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Khond V W, Kriplani V. Effect of nanofluid additives on performances and emissions of emulsified diesel and biodiesel fueled stationary Ci engine: A comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 59: 1338–1348 (2016)Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Kong L, Sun J, Bao Y. Preparation, characterization and tribological mechanism of nanofluids. RSC Adv 7: 12599 (2017)Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Peña-Parás L, Maldonado-Cortés D, Taha-Tijerina J. Handbook of Ecomaterials. Martínez L, Kharissova O, Kharisov B, eds. Springer, Cham, 2019Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Zhang S-W. Green tribology: Fundamentals and future development. Friction 1: 186–194 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Zhang S-W. Recent developments of green tribology. Surf Topogr: Metrol Prop 4: 023004 (2016)Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Zhai W, Srikanth N, Kong L B, Zhou K. Carbon nanomaterials in tribology. Carbon 119: 150–171 (2017)Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Shahmohamadi S H, Rahmani R, Rahnejat H, Garner C P, Balodimos N. Thermohydrodynamics of lubricant flow with carbon nanoparticles in tribological contacts. Tribol Int 113: 50–57 (2017)Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Wang B, Tang W, Liu X, Huang Z. Synthesis of ionic liquid decorated muti-walled carbon nanotubes as the favorable water-based lubricant additives. Appl Phys A: Mater Sci Proces 123: 680 (2017)Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    He A, Huang S, Yun J-H, Jiang Z, Stokes J R, Jiao S, Wang L, Huang H. Tribological Characteristics of aqueous graphene oxide, graphitic carbon nitride, and their mixed suspensions. Tribol Lett 66: 42 (2018)Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Gusain R, Mungse H P, Kumar N, Ravindran T R, Pandian R, Sugimura H, Khatri O P. Covalently attached graphene-ionic liquid hybrid nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization and tribological application. J Mater Chem A 4: 926–937 (2016)Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Liu Y, Mateti S, Li C, Liu X, Glushenkov A M, Liu D, Li L H, Fabijanic D, Chen Y. Synthesis of composite nanosheets of graphene and boron nitride and their lubrication application in oil. Adv Eng Mater 20: 1700488 (2018)Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Sheng Y, Yang J, Wang F, Liu L, Liu H, Yan C, Guo Z. Sol-gel synthesized hexagonal boron nitride/titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Appl Surf Sci 465: 154–163 (2019)Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Zhang R, Zhao J, Pu J, Lu Z. First-principles investigation on the tribological properties of h-BN bilayer under variable load. Tribol Lett 66: 124 (2018)Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Liu X, Xu N, Li W, Zhang M, Chen L, Lou W, Wang X. Exploring the effect of nanoparticle size on the tribological properties of SiO2/polyalkylene glycol nanofluid under different lubrication conditions. Tribol Int 109: 467–472 (2017)Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Singh S K, Chattopadhyaya S, Pramanik A, Kumar S, Gupta N. Influence of nano-particle on the wear behaviour of thin film coatings. A review. Int J Appl Eng Res 13: 4053–4058 (2018)Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Patil S J, Patil D P, Shrotri A P, Patil V P. A review on effect of addition of nano particles on tribological properties of lubricants. Int J Mech Eng Technol (IJMET) 5: 120–129 (2014)Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Uflyand I E, Zhinzhilo V A, Lapshina L S, Novikova A A, Burlakova V E, Dzhardimalieva G I. Conjugated thermolysis of metal chelate monomers based on cobalt acrylate complexes with polypyridyl ligands and tribological performance of nanomaterials obtained. ChemistrySelect 3: 8998–9007 (2018)Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Koshy C P, Rajendrakumar P K, Thottackkad M V. Evaluation of the tribological and thermo–physical properties of coconut oil added with MoS2 nanoparticles at elevated temperatures. Wear 330–331: 288–308 (2015)Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Zin V, Agresti F, Barison S, Colla L, Fabrizio M. Influence of Cu, TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon nano-horns on tribological properties of engine oil. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 15: 3590–3598 (2015)Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Abdullah M I H C, Abdollah M F B, Tamaldin N, Amiruddin H, Mat Nuri N R, Gachot C, Kaleli H. Effect of hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles as an additive on the extreme pressure properties of engine oil. Ind Lubr Tribol 68: 441–445 (2016)Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Çelik O N, Ay N, Göncü Y. Effect of nano hexagonal boron nitride lubricant additives on the friction and wear properties of AISI 4140 steel. Part Sci Technol 31: 501–506 (2013)Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Xie H, Jiang B, He J, Xia X, Pan F. Lubrication performance of MoS2 and SiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additives in magnesium alloy-steel contacts. Tribol Int 93: 63–70 (2016)Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Uflyand I E, Dzhardimalieva G I, Nanomaterials Preparation by Thermolysis of Metal Chelates. Springer, Cham, 2018Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Ealias A M, Saravanakumar M P. A review on the classification, characterisation, synthesis of nanoparticles and their application. IOP Conf Ser: Mater Sci Eng 263: 032019 (2017)Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Rao B G, Mukherjee D, Reddy B M. Nanostructures for Novel Therapy. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications. Ficai D, Grumezescu A, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2017Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Qiao S-Z, Liu J, Max Lu G Q. Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry, 2nd edn. Xu R, Xu Y, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2017Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites: Zero-to Three-Dimensional Materials and Their Composites. Visakh P M, Morlanes M J M, eds. Wiley, Weinheim, 2016Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Amosov A P. Nanomaterials of SHS technology for tribological applications: A review. Russ J Non-Ferrous Metals 58: 530–539 (2017)Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Ali M K A, Abdelkareem M A A, Elagouz A, Essa F A, Xianjun H. mini review on the significance nano-lubricants in boundary lubrication regime. Int J Biosensors & Bioelectronics 2: 42–43 (2017)Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Ali M K A, Xianjun H, Mai L, Qingping C, Turkson R F, Bicheng C. Improving the tribological characteristics of piston ring assembly in automotive engines using Al2O3 and TiO2 nanomaterials as nano-lubricant additives. Tribol Int 103: 540–554 (2016)Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Alahmer A. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 73: 361–369 (2013)Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Ali M K A, Xianjun H, Turkson R F, Ezzat M. An analytical study of tribological parameters between piston ring and cylinder liner in internal combustion engines. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part K: J Multi-Body Dyn 230: 329–349 (2016)Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Guo D, Xie G, Luo J. Mechanical properties of nanoparticles: Basics and applications. J Phys D: Appl Phys 47: 013001 (2013)Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Ali M K A, Xianjun H, Elagouz A, Essa F A, Abdelkareem M A A. Minimizing of the boundary friction coefficient in automotive engines using Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 18: 377 (2016)Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Zareh-Desari B, Davoodi B. Assessing the lubrication performance of vegetable oil-based nano-lubricants for environmentally conscious metal forming processes. J Clean Prod 135: 1198–1209 (2016)Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Gulzar M, Masjuki H H, Varman M, Kalam M A, Mufti R A, Zulkifli N W M, Yunus R, Zahid R. Improving the AW/EP ability of chemically modified palm oil by adding CuO and MoS2 nanoparticles. Tribol Int 88: 271–279 (2015)Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Alves S M, Mello V S, Faria E A, Camargo A P P. Nanolubricants developed from tiny CuO nanoparticles. Tribol Int 100: 263 (2016)Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Sanukrishna S S, Vishnu S, Krishnakumar T S, Prakash M J. Effect of oxide nanoparticles on the thermal, rheological and tribological behaviours of refrigerant compressor oil: An experimental investigation. Int J Refrig 90: 32–45 (2018)Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Ingole S, Charanpahari A, Kakade A, Umare S S, Bhatt D V, Menghani J. Tribological behavior of nano TiO2 as an additive in base oil. Wear 301: 776–785 (2013)Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Asnida M, Hisham S, Awang N W, Amirruddin A K, Noor M M, Kadirgama K, Ramasamy D, Najafi G, Tarlochan F. Copper (II) oxide nanoparticles as additive in engine oil to increase the durability of piston-liner contact. Fuel 212: 656–667 (2018)Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Luo T, Wei X, Huang X, Huang L, Yang F. Tribological properties of Al2O3 nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives. Ceram Int 40: 7143–7149 (2014)Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Padgurskas J, Rukuiza R, Prosycevas I, Kreuvaitis R. Tribological properties of lubricant additives of Fe, Cu and Co nanoparticles. Tribol Int 60: 224–232 (2013)Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Borda F L G, de Oliveira S J R, Lazaro L M S M, Leiróz A J K. Experimental investigation of the tribological behavior of lubricants with additive containing copper nanoparticles. Tribol Int 117: 52–58 (2018)Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Garg P, Kumar A, Thakre G D, Arya P K, Jain A K. Investigating efficacy of Cu nano-particles as additive for bio-lubricants. Macromol Symp 376: 1700010 (2017)Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Gaur M K, Singh S K, Sood A, Chauhan D S. Advances in Design, Simulation and Manufacturing. Ivanov V, Rong Y, Trojanowska J, Venus J, Liaposhchenko O, Zajac J, Pavlenko I, Edl M, Perakovic D, eds. Springer, Cham, 2019Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Ghaednia H, Babaei H, Jackson R L, Bozack M J, Khodadadi J. The effect of nanoparticles on thin film elastohydrodynamic lubrication. Appl Phys Lett 103: 263111 (2013)Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    Kalyani R, Chockalingam G, Gurunathan K. Tribological aspects of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Adv Sci Eng Medicine 8: 228–232 (2016)Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Meng H N, Zhang Z Z, Zhao F X, Qiu T, Zhu X, Lu X J. Tribological behaviours of Cu nanoparticles recovered from electroplating effluent as lubricant additive. Tribol–Mater Surf Interfaces 9: 46–53 (2015)Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    Li Y, Liu T T, Zhang Y, Zhang P, Zhang S. Study on the tribological behaviors of copper nanoparticles in three kinds of commercially available lubricants. Ind Lubr Tribol 70: 519–526 (2018)Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Najan A B, Navthar R R, Gitay M J. Experimental Investigation of tribological properties using nanoparticles as modifiers in lubricating oil. Int Res J Eng Technol (IRJET) 4: 1125–1129 (2017)Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Songmei Y, Xuebo H, Guangyuan Z, Amin M. A novel approach of applying copper nanoparticles in minimum quantity lubrication for milling of Ti-6Al-4V. Adv Prod Eng Manag 12: 139–150 (2017)Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Zhang X-M, Yang X-P, Ouyang P. Research progress in copper-containing micro and nano particles as lubricating additives. Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chem Ind 34: 53–56 (2014)Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Yang G, Zhang Z, Zhang S, Yu L, Zhang P. Synthesis and characterization of highly stable dispersions of copper nanoparticles by a novel one-pot method. Mater Res Bull 48: 1716–1719 (2013)Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Hu H, Peng H, Ding G. Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant/nanolubricant mixture with surfactant. Int J Refrig 36: 1045 (2013)Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    Zhang C, Zhang S, Song S, Yang G, Yu L, Wu Z, Li X, Zhang P. Preparation and tribological properties of surfacecapped copper nanoparticle as a water-based lubricant additive. Tribol Lett 54: 25–33 (2014)Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    Nan F, Xu Y, Xu B, Gao F, Wu Y, Li Z. Effect of Cu Nanoparticles on the tribological performance of attapulgite base grease. Tribol Trans 58: 1031–1038 (2015)Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Thapliyal P, Kumar A, Thakre G D, Jain A K. Investigation of rheological parameters of lubricants and contact fatigue behavior of steel in the presence of Cu nano-particles. Macromol Symp 376: 1700011 (2017)Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Song H, Huang J, Jia X, Sheng W. Facile synthesis of core-shell Ag@C nanospheres with improved tribological properties for water-based additives. New J Chem 42: 8773–8782 (2018)Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    Beckford S, Cai J, Chen J, Zou M. Use of Au Nanoparticle-Filled PTFE films to produce low-friction and low-wear surface coatings. Tribol Lett 56: 223–230 (2014)Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Kumara C, Luo H, Leonard D N, Meyer H M, Qu J. Organic-modified silver nanoparticles as lubricant additives. ACS App Mater Interface 9: 37227–37237 (2017)Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Zhang S, Li Y, Hu L, Feng D, Wang H. Antiwear effect of Mo and W nanoparticles as additives for multialkylated cyclopentanes oil in vacuum. J Tribol 139: 021607 (2016)Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    Li Y, Zhang S, Ding Q, Li H, Qin B, Hu L. Understanding the synergistic lubrication effect of 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate based ionic liquids and Mo nanoparticles as hybrid additives. Tribol Int 125: 39–45 (2018)Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    Flores-Castañeda M, Camps E, Camacho-López M, Muhl S, García E, Figueroa M. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests. J Alloys Compd 643: S67–S70 (2015)Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    Gonzalez-Rodriguez P, Van Den Nieuwenhuijzen K J H, Lette W, Schipper D J, Ten Elshof J E. Tribochemistry of bismuth and bismuth salts for solid lubrication. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8: 7601–7606 (2016)Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    Scherge M, Böttcher R, Kürten D, Linsler D. Multi-Phase friction and wear reduction by copper nanopartices. Lubricants 4: 36 (2016)Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Wang X L, Yin Y L, Zhang G N, Wang W Y, Zhao K K. Study on antiwear and repairing performances about mass of nano-copper lubricating additives to 45 Steel. Phys Procedia 50: 466–472 (2013)Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    Wang J, Guo X, He Y, Jiang M, Sun R. The synthesis and tribological characteristics of triangular copper nanoplates as a grease additive. RSC Adv 7: 40249–40254 (2017)Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Yang G, Zhang Z, Zhang S, Yu L, Zhang P, Hou Y. Preparation and characterization of copper nanoparticles surface-capped by alkanethiols. Surf Interface Anal 45: 1695–1701 (2013)Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Zhang Y, Xu Y, Yang Y, Zhang S, Zhang P, Zhang Z. Synthesis and tribological properties of oil-soluble copper nanoparticles as environmentally friendly lubricating oil additives. Ind Lubr Tribol 67: 227–232 (2015)Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    Zhang Y, Zhang S, Zhang P, Yang G, Zhang Z. Advances in Tribology. Darji P H, ed. InTech, 2016.Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Chen Y, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Yu L, Zhang P, Zhang Z. Preparation of nickel-based nanolubricants via a facile in situ one-step route and investigation of their tribological properties. Tribol Lett 51: 73–83 (2013)Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Abad M D, Sánchez-López J C. Tribological properties of surface-modified Pd nanoparticles for electrical contacts. Wear 297: 943–951 (2013)Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    Zhang S, Hu L, Feng D, Wang H. Anti-wear and frictionreduction mechanism of Sn and Fe nanoparticles as additives of multialkylated cyclopentanes under vacuum condition. Vacuum 87: 75–80 (2013)Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Kedzierski M A. Effect of concentration on R134a/Al2O3 nanolubricant mixture boiling on a reentrant cavity surface. Int J Refrig 49: 36–48 (2015)Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    Shaari M Z, Roselina N R N, Kasolang S, Hyie K M, Murad M C, Bakar M A A. Investigation of tribological properties of palm oil biolubricant modified nanoparticles. Jurnal Teknologi 76: 69–73 (2015)Google Scholar
  93. [93]
    Arumugam S, Sriram G. Preliminary study of nano-and microscale TiO2 additives on tribological behavior of chemically modified rapeseed oil. Tribol Trans 56: 797–805 (2013)Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Fangsuwannarak K, Triratanasirichai K. Improvements of palm biodiesel properties by using nano-TiO2 additive, exhaust emission and engine performance. Rom Rev Precis Mech Opt Mechatron 43: 111–118 (2013)Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    Laad M, Jatti V K S. Titanium oxide nanoparticles as additives in engine oil. J King Saud Univ–Eng Sci 30: 116–122 (2018)Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    Xia W, Zhao J, Wu H, Zhao X, Zhang X, Xu J, Jiao S, Jiang Z. Effects of oil-in-water based nanolubricant containing TiO2 nanoparticles in hot rolling of 304 stainless steel. Procedia Eng 207: 1385–1390 (2017)Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    Trajano M F, Moura E I F, Ribeiro K S B, Alves S M. Study of oxide nanoparticles as additives for vegetable lubricants. Mater Res 17: 1124–1128 (2014)Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    Bhaumik S, Maggirwar R, Datta S, Pathak S D. Analyses of anti-wear and extreme pressure properties of castor oil with zinc oxide nano friction modifiers. Appl Surf Sci 449: 277–286 (2018)Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    Essa F A, Zhang Q, Huang X, Ibrahim A M M, Ali M K A, Abdelkareem M A A, Elagouz A. Improved friction and wear of M50 steel composites incorporated with ZnO as a solid lubricant with different concentrations under different load. J Mater Eng Perform 26: 4855–4866 (2017)Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    Suresh Kumar V P, Manikandan N, Subakaran C, Sterbin Jeso Y G. An experimental effect of ZnO nanoparticles in SAE 20W50 oil. Int Res J Eng Technol (IRJET) 5: 1069–1073 (2018)Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    Ran X, Yu X, Zou Q. Effect of particle concentration on tribological properties of ZnO nanofluids. Tribol Trans 60: 154–158 (2017)Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    Thottackkad M V, Rajendrakumar P K, Prabhakaran Nair K. Experimental studies on the tribological behaviour of engine oil (SAE15W40) with the addition of CuO nanoparticles. Ind Lubr Tribol 66: 289–297 (2014)Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    Arumugam S, Sriram G. Synthesis and characterization of rapeseed oil bio-lubricant dispersed with nano copper oxide: its effect on wear and frictional behavior of piston ring–cylinder liner combination. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J 228: 1308 (2014)Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    Yang P, Zhao X, Liu Y, Lai X. Preparation and tribological properties of dual-coated CuO nanoparticles as water based lubricant additives. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 16: 9683 (2016)Google Scholar
  105. [105]
    Trivedi K, Parekh K, Upadhyay R V. Nanolubricant: Magnetic nanoparticle based. Mater Res Express 4: 114003 (2017)Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    Zhou G, Zhu Y, Wang X, Xia M, Zhang Y, Ding H. Sliding tribological properties of 0.45% carbon steel lubricated with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle additives in base oil. Wear 301: 753–757 (2013)Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    Pisal A S, Chavan D S. Experimental investigation of tribological properties of engine oil with CuO nanoparticles. Int J Theor Appl Res Mech Eng (IJTARME) 3: 34–38 (2014)Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    Kashyap A, Harsha A P. Tribological studies on chemically modified rapeseed oil with CuO and CeO2 nanoparticles. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J: J Eng Tribol 230: 1562–1571 (2016)Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    Liu H, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Chen Y, Zhang P, Zhang Z. Preparation and evaluation of tribological properties of oil-soluble rice-like CuO nanoparticles. Ind Lubr Tribol 67: 276–283 (2015)Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    Manjunatha G, Anil Kumar T. Influence of heat treatment temperatures on wear and hardness properties of copper oxide nanoparticle reinforced composites. Int Res J Eng Technol (IRJET) 3: 251–254 (2016)Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    Dai W, Lee K, Sinyukov A M, Liang H. Effects of vanadium oxide nanoparticles on friction and wear reduction. J Tribol 139: 061607 (2017)Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    Thottackkad M V, Rajendrakumar P K, Prabhakaran N K. Tribological analysis of surfactant modified nanolubricants containing CeO2 nanoparticles. Tribol–Mater Surf Interfaces 8: 125–130 (2014)Google Scholar
  113. [113]
    Zulhanafi P, Syahrullail S, Faridzuan M M. Tribological performance of palm kernel oil added with nanoparticle copper oxide using fourball tribotester. Jurnal Teknologi 79: 53–59 (2017)Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Xia W, Zhao J, Wu H, Jiao S, Zhao X, Zhang X, Xu J, Jiang Z. Analysis of oil-in-water based nanolubricants with varying mass fractions of oil and TiO2 nanoparticles. Wear 396–397: 162–171 (2018)Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    Xia W, Zhao J, Cheng X, Sun J, Wu H, Yan Y, Jiao S, Jiang Z. Study on growth behaviour of oxide scale and its effects on tribological property of nano-TiO2 additive oil-inwater lubricant. Wear 376–377: 792–802 (2017)Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    Wu H, Zhao J, Cheng X, Xia W, He A, Yun J H, Huang S, Wang L, Huang H, Jiao S, Jiang Z. Friction and wear characteristics of TiO2 nano-additive water-based lubricant on Ferritic stainless steel. Tribol Int 117: 24–38 (2018)Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    Gu Y, Zhao X, Liu Y, Lv Y. Preparation and tribological properties of dual-coated TiO2 nanoparticles as water-based lubricant additives. J Nanomater 2014: Article ID 785680 (2014)Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    Binu K G, Shenoy B S, Rao D S, Pai R. A variable viscosity approach for the evaluation of load carrying capacity of oil lubricated journal bearing with TiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additives. Procedia Mater Sci 6: 1051–1067 (2014)Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    Zulkifli N W M, Kalam M A, Masjuki H H, Yunus R. Experimental analysis of tribological properties of biolubricant with nanoparticle additive. Procedia Eng 68: 152–157 (2013)Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    Laad M, Ponnamma D, Sadasivuni K K. Tribological studies of nanomodified mineral based multi-grade engine oil. Int J Appl Eng Res 12: 2855–2861 (2017)Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    Ilie F, Covaliu C. Tribological properties of the lubricant containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles as an additive. Lubricants 4: 12 (2016)Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    Zaimovskaya T A, Oganesova E Yu, Kuzmina G N, Ezhov A A, Ivanov V K, Parenago O P. Titanium-containing compounds as efficient triboadditives to oils. J Friction Wear 34: 487–493 (2013)Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    Tao C, Wang B, Barber G C, Schall J D, Lan H. Tribological behaviour of SnO2 nanoparticles as an oil additive on brass. Lubr Sci 30: 247–255 (2018)Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    Thakre A A, Thakur A. Study of behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles suspended in SAE20W40 oil under extreme pressure lubrication. Ind Lubr Tribol 67: 328 (2015)Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    Peña-Parás L, Taha-Tijerina J, Garza L, Maldonado-Cortés D, Michalczewski R, Lapray C. Effect of CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticle additives on the tribological behavior of fully formulated oils. Wear 332–333: 1256–1261 (2015)Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    Alves S M, Barros B S, Trajano M F, Ribeiro K S B, Moura E. Tribological behavior of vegetable oil-based lubricants with nanoparticles of oxides in boundary lubrication conditions. Tribol Int 65: 28–36 (2013)Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    Wu L, Zhang Y, Yang G, Zhang S, Yu L, Zhang P. Tribological properties of oleic acid-modified zinc oxide nanoparticles as the lubricant additive in poly-alpha olefin and diisooctyl sebacate base oils. RSC Adv 6: 69836–69844 (2016)Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    Jatti V S, Singh T P. Copper oxide nano-particles as friction-reduction and anti-wear additives in lubricating oil. J Mech Sci Technol 29: 793–798 (2015)Google Scholar
  129. [129]
    Gao C, Wang Y, Hu D, Pan Z, Xiang L. Tribological properties of magnetite nanoparticles with various morphologies as lubricating additives. J Nanopart Res 15: 1502 (2013)Google Scholar
  130. [130]
    Yadgarov L, Petrone V, Rosentsveig R, Feldman Y, Tenne R, Senatore A. Tribological studies of rhenium doped fullerene-like MoS2 nanoparticles in boundary, mixed and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication conditions. Wear 297: 1103–1110 (2013)Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    Zhou L H, Wei X C, Ma Z J, Mei B. Anti-friction performance of FeS nanoparticle synthesized by biological method. Appl Surf Sci 407: 21–28 (2017)Google Scholar
  132. [132]
    Rabaso P, Ville F, Dassenoy F, Diaby M, Afanasiev P, Cavoret J, Vacher B, Le Mogne T. Boundary lubrication: influence of the size and structure of inorganic fullerenelike MoS2 nanoparticles on friction and wear reduction. Wear 320: 161–178 (2014)Google Scholar
  133. [133]
    Xu Y, Hu E, Hu K, Xu Y, Hu X. Formation of an adsorption film of MoS2 nanoparticles and dioctylsebacate on a steel surface for alleviating friction and wear. Tribol Int 92: 172–183 (2015)Google Scholar
  134. [134]
    Kalin M, Kogovšek J, Remškar M. Nanoparticles as novel lubricating additives in a green, physically based lubrication technology for DLC coatings. Wear 303: 480–485 (2013)Google Scholar
  135. [135]
    Wan Q, Jin Y, Sun P, Ding Y. Rheological and tribological behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet MoS2 nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 16: 2386 (2014)Google Scholar
  136. [136]
    Nazir M H, Khan Z A, Saeed A, Siddaiah A, Menezes P L. Synergistic wear-corrosion analysis and modelling of nanocomposite coatings. Tribol Int 121: 30–44 (2018)Google Scholar
  137. [137]
    Irtegov Y, An V, Machekhina K, Lemachko N. Influence of copper nanoparticles on tribological properties of nanolamellar tungsten disulfide. Key Engineering Materials 712: 133–136 (2016)Google Scholar
  138. [138]
    Abreu C S, Matos J, Cavaleiro A, Alves E, Barradas N P, Vaz F, Torrell M, Gomes J R. Tribological characterization of TiO2/Au decorative thin films obtained by PVD magnetron sputtering technology. Wear 330–331: 419–428 (2015)Google Scholar
  139. [139]
    Ataie S A, Zakeri A. Improving tribological properties of (Zn–Ni)/nano Al2O3 composite coatings produced by ultrasonic assisted pulse plating. J Alloys Compds 674: 315–322 (2016)Google Scholar
  140. [140]
    Meng Y, Su F, Chen Y. Effective lubricant additive of nano-Ag/MWCNTs nanocomposite produced by supercritical CO2 synthesis. Tribol Int 118: 180–188 (2018)Google Scholar
  141. [141]
    Meng Y, Su F, Chen Y. Supercritical fluid synthesis and tribological applications of silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene in engine oil nanofluid. Nanofluid Sci Rep 6: 1 (2016)Google Scholar
  142. [142]
    An V, Irtegov Y, Anisimov E, Druzyanova V, Burtsev N, Khaskelberg M. Tribological properties of nanolamellar tungsten disulfide doped with zinc oxide nanoparticles. SpringerPlus 4: 673 (2015)Google Scholar
  143. [143]
    Anisimov E, Irtegov Y, An V, Druzyanova V, Burtsev N, Khaskelberg M B. Use of zinc oxide nanopowder as an additive in a tribotechnical composite based on refractory metal disulfide. Key Engineering Materials 685: 539–542 (2016)Google Scholar
  144. [144]
    An V, Anisimov E, Druzyanova V, Burtsev N, Shulepov I, Khaskelberg M. Study of tribological behavior of Cu–MoS2 and Ag–MoS2 nanocomposite lubricants. SpringerPlus 5: 72 (2016)Google Scholar
  145. [145]
    An V, Irtegov Y. Tribological Properties of nanolamellar mos2 doped with copper nanoparticles. J Nanomater 2014: Article ID 731073 (2014)Google Scholar
  146. [146]
    Gulzar M, Masjuki H, Kalam M, Varman M, Zulkifli N, Mufti R, Zahid R, Yunus R. Dispersion stability and tribological characteristics of TiO2/SiO2 nanocompositeenriched biobased lubricant. Tribol Trans 60: 670–680 (2017)Google Scholar
  147. [147]
    Zhao J, He Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Yan L, Luo J. An investigation on the tribological properties of multilayer grapheme and MoS2 nanosheets as additives used in hydraulic applications. Tribol Int 97: 14–20 (2016)Google Scholar
  148. [148]
    Luo T, Wei X, Zhao H, Cai G, Zheng X. Tribology properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites as lubricant additives. Ceram Int 40: 10103–10109 (2014)Google Scholar
  149. [149]
    Ali M K A, Fuming P, Younus H A, Abdelkareem M A A, Essa F A, Elagouz A, Xianjun H. Fuel economy in gasoline engines using Al2O3/TiO2 nanomaterials as nanolubricant additives. Appl Energy 211: 461–478 (2018)Google Scholar
  150. [150]
    Meng Y, Su F, Chen Y. Synthesis of nano-Cu/grapheme oxide composites by supercritical CO2-assisted deposition as a novel material for reducing friction and wear. Chem Eng J 281: 11–19 (2015)Google Scholar
  151. [151]
    Peña-Parás L, Taha-Tijerina J, García A, Maldonado D, Nájera A, Cantú P, Ortiz D. Thermal transport and tribological properties of nanogreases for metal-mechanic applications. Wear 332–333: 1322–1326 (2015)Google Scholar
  152. [152]
    Gu K, Chen B, Chen Y. Preparation and tribological properties of lanthanum-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in rapeseed oil. J Rare Earths 31: 589–594 (2013)Google Scholar
  153. [153]
    Li S, Qin H, Zuo R, Bai Z. Tribological performance of Mg/Al/Ce layered double hydroxides nanoparticles and intercalated products as lubricant additives. Appl Surf Sci 353: 643–650 (2015)Google Scholar
  154. [154]
    Li S, Qin H, Zuo R, Bai Z. Friction properties of La-doped Mg/Al layered double hydroxide and intercalated product as lubricant additives. Tribol Int 91: 60–66 (2015)Google Scholar
  155. [155]
    Li Z, Hou X, Yu L, Zhang Z, Zhang P. Preparation of lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles surface-capped by tributylphosphate and evaluation of their tribological properties as lubricant additive in liquid paraffin. Appl Surf Sci 292: 971–977 (2014)Google Scholar
  156. [156]
    Gupta R N, Harsha A P. Tribological evaluation of calcium–copper–titanate/cerium oxide-based nanolubricants in sliding contact. Lubr Sci 30: 175–187 (2018)Google Scholar
  157. [157]
    Liu T, Hu X, Hu E, Xu Y. Modern Mechanical Engineering. Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology. Davim J, ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014Google Scholar
  158. [158]
    Shen T, Wang D, Yun J, Liu Q, Liu X, Peng Z. Tribological properties and tribochemical analysis of nano-cerium oxide and sulfurized isobutene in titanium complex grease. Tribol Int 93: 332–346 (2016)Google Scholar
  159. [159]
    Hou X, He J, Yu L, Li Z, Zhang Z, Zhang P. Preparation and tribological properties of fluorosilane surface-modified lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil. Appl Surf Sci 316: 515–523 (2014)Google Scholar
  160. [160]
    Boshui C, Kecheng G, Jianhua F, Jiang W, Jiu W, Nan Z. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant. Appl Surf Sci 353: 326–332 (2015)Google Scholar
  161. [161]
    Alves S M, Silva e Mello V, Sinatora A. Nanolubrication mechanisms: Influence of size and concentration of CuO nanoparticles. Mater Perform Character 7: 20170064 (2018)Google Scholar
  162. [162]
    Kumar N, Bhaumik S, Sen A, Shukla A P, Pathak S D. One-pot synthesis and first-principles elasticity analysis of polymorphic MnO2 nanorods for tribological assessment as friction modifiers. RSC Adv 7: 34138–34148 (2017)Google Scholar
  163. [163]
    Spikes H. Friction modifier additives. Tribol Lett 60: 5 (2015)Google Scholar
  164. [164]
    Sgroi M F, Asti M, Gili F, Deorsola F A, Bensaid S, Fino D, Kraft G, Garcia I, Dassenoy F. Engine bench and road testing of an engine oil containing MoS2 particles as nanoadditive for friction reduction. Tribol Int 105: 317–325 (2017)Google Scholar
  165. [165]
    He Z, Que W. Molybdenum disulfide nanomaterials: Structures, properties, synthesis and recent progress on hydrogen evolution reaction. Appl Mater Today 3: 23–56 (2016)Google Scholar
  166. [166]
    Berman D, Erdemir A, Sumant A V. Approaches for achieving superlubricity in two-dimensional materials. ACS Nano 12: 2122–2137 (2018)Google Scholar
  167. [167]
    Spear J C, Ewers B W, Batteas J D. 2D-nanomaterials for controlling friction and wear at interfaces. Nano Today 10: 301–314 (2015)Google Scholar
  168. [168]
    Liu Y, Xin L, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Zhang S, Zhang P. The effect of Ni nanoparticles on the lubrication of a DLC-based solid–liquid synergetic system in all lubrication regimes. Tribol Lett 65: 31 (2017)Google Scholar
  169. [169]
    Gusain R, Khatri O P. Ultrasound assisted shape regulation of CuO nanorods in ionic liquids and their use as energy efficient lubricant additives. J Mater Chem A 1: 5612–5619 (2013)Google Scholar
  170. [170]
    Asrul M, Zulkifli N W M, Masjuki H H, Kalam M A. Tribological properties and lubricant mechanism of Nanoparticle in Engine Oil. Procedia Eng 68: 320–325 (2013)Google Scholar
  171. [171]
    Gupta R N, Harsha A P. Tribological study of castor oil with surface-modified CuO nanoparticles in boundary lubrication. Ind Lubr Tribol 70: 700–710 (2018)Google Scholar
  172. [172]
    Dinesh R, Prasad M J G, Kumar R R, Santharaj N J, Raaj J S A S A, Investigation of tribological and thermophysical properties of engine oil containing nano additives. Mater Today: Proceedings 3: 45–53 (2016)Google Scholar
  173. [173]
    Kong L, Sun J, Bao Y, Meng Y. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on wettability and tribological performance of aqueous suspension. Wear 376–377: 786–791 (2017)Google Scholar
  174. [174]
    Gupta R N, Harsha A P. Antiwear and extreme pressure performance of castor oil with nano-additives. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J: J Eng Tribol 232: 1055–1067 (2017)Google Scholar
  175. [175]
    Azman N F, Samion S, Mat Sot M N H. Investigation of tribological properties of CuO/palm oil nanolubricant using pin-on-disc tribotester. Green Mater 6: 30–37 (2018)Google Scholar
  176. [176]
    Gupta R N, Harsha A P. Friction and wear of nanoadditivebased biolubricants in steel-steel sliding contacts: A comparative study. J Mater Eng Perform 27: 648–658 (2018)Google Scholar
  177. [177]
    Qi M, Xiao J, Gong C, Jiang A, Chen Y. Evolution of the mechanical and tribological properties of DLC thin films doped with low-concentration hafnium on 316L steel. J Phys D: Appl Phys 51: 025301 (2018)Google Scholar
  178. [178]
    Ghaednia H, Jackson R L, Khodadadi J M. Experimental analysis of stable CuO nanoparticle enhanced lubricants. J Exp Nanosci 10: 1–18 (2015)Google Scholar
  179. [179]
    Ghaednia H, Jackson R L. The effect of nanoparticles on the real area of contact, friction and wear. J Tribol 135: 041603 (2013)Google Scholar
  180. [180]
    Ettefaghi E, Ahmadi H, Rashidi A, Seyed S M, Mahshad A. Experimental evaluation of engine oil properties containing copper oxide nanoparticles as a nanoadditive. Int J Ind Chem 4: 28 (2013)Google Scholar
  181. [181]
    Gulzar M, Masjuki H H, Kalam M A, Varman M, Zulkifli N W M. Antiwear behavior of CuO nanoparticles as additive in bio-based lubricant. Key Engineering Materials 748: 166–170 (2017)Google Scholar
  182. [182]
    Kotia A, Borkakoti S, Ghosh S K. Wear and performance analysis of a 4-stroke diesel engine employing nanolubricants. Particuology 37: 54–63 (2018)Google Scholar
  183. [183]
    Kheireddin B A, Lu W, Chen I-C, Akbulut M. Inorganic nanoparticle-based ionic liquid lubricants. Wear 303: 185–190 (2013)Google Scholar
  184. [184]
    Peña-Parás L, Taha-Tijerina J, García A, Maldonado D, González J A, Molina D, Palacios E, Cantú P. Antiwear and extreme pressure properties of nanofluids for industrial applications. Tribol Trans 57: 1072–1076 (2014)Google Scholar
  185. [185]
    Rahmati B, Sarhan A A, Sayuti M. Morphology of surface generated by end milling AL6061-T6 using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanolubrication in end milling machining. J Clean Prod 66: 685–691 (2014)Google Scholar
  186. [186]
    Duan G, Hu X, Song X, Qiu Z, Gong H, Cao B. Morphology evolution of ZnO submicroparticles induced by laser irradiation and their enhanced tribology properties by compositing with Al2O3 nanoparticles. Adv Eng Mater 17: 341–348 (2015)Google Scholar
  187. [187]
    Konicek A R, Jacobs P W, Webster M N, Schilowitz A M. Role of tribofilms in wear protection. Tribol Int 94: 14–19 (2016)Google Scholar
  188. [188]
    Ali M K A, Xianjun H, Essa F, Abdelkareem M A A, Elagouz A, Sharshir S W. Friction and wear reduction mechanisms of the reciprocating contact interfaces using nanolubricant under different loads and speeds. J Tribol 140: 051606 (2018)Google Scholar
  189. [189]
    Ali M K A, Xianjun H, Turkson R F, Peng Z, Chen X. Enhancing the thermophysical properties and tribological behaviour of engine oils using nano-lubricant additives. RSC Adv 6: 77913–77924 (2016)Google Scholar
  190. [190]
    Ali M K A, Hou X, Mai L, Chen B, Turkson R F, Cai Q. Reducing frictional power losses and improving the scuffing resistance in automotive engines using hybrid nanomaterials as nano-lubricant additives. Wear 364–365: 270–281 (2016)Google Scholar
  191. [191]
    Turkson R F, Yan F, Ali M K A, Liu B, Hu J. Modeling and Multi-objective optimization of engine performance and hydrocarbon emissions via the use of a computer aided engineering code and the NSGAII genetic algorithm. Sustainability 8: 72 (2016)Google Scholar
  192. [192]
    Gustavsson F, Jacobson S. Diverse mechanisms of friction induced self-organisation into a low-friction material–An overview of WS2 tribofilm formation. Tribol Int 101: 340–347 (2016)Google Scholar
  193. [193]
    Kim S Ch, Mansurov Yu N, Li S H. The method for producing copper nanoparticles and analysis of their lubricating ability. Solid State Phenomena 265: 738–744 (2017)Google Scholar
  194. [194]
    Du P, Chen G, Song S, Zhu D, Wu J, Chen P, Chen H. Preparation and tribological properties of Cu-doped muscovite composite particles as lubricant additive. Chem Res Chin Univ 33: 430–435 (2017)Google Scholar
  195. [195]
    Hu C, Bai M, Lv J, Li X. Molecular dynamics simulation of mechanism of nanoparticle in improving load-carrying capacity of lubricant film. Comput Mater Sci 109: 97–103 (2015)Google Scholar
  196. [196]
    Hu C, Bai M, Lv J, Kou Z, Li X. Molecular dynamics simulation on the tribology properties of two hard nanoparticles (diamond and silicon dioxide) confined by two iron blocks. Tribol Int 90: 297–305 (2015)Google Scholar
  197. [197]
    Hu C, Bai M, Lv J, Liu H, Li X. Molecular dynamics investigation of the effect of copper nanoparticle on the solid contact between friction surfaces. Appl Surf Sci 321: 302–309 (2014)Google Scholar
  198. [198]
    Alimirzaloo V, Qaleh S S G, Keshtiban P M, Ahmadi S. Investigation of the effect of CuO and Al2O3 nanolubricants on the surface roughness in the forging process of aluminum alloy. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J: J Eng Tribol 231: 1595–1604 (2017)Google Scholar
  199. [199]
    He X, Xiao H, Kyle J P, Terrell E J, Liang H. Twodimensional nanostructured Y2O3 particles for viscosity modification. Appl Phys Lett 104: 163107 (2014)Google Scholar
  200. [200]
    He X, Xiao H, Choi H, Díaz A, Mosby B, Clearfield A, Liang H. α-Zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets as lubricant additives Colloids Surf A: Physicochem Eng Asp 452: 32 (2014)Google Scholar
  201. [201]
    Xiao H, Dai W, Kan Y, Clearfield A, Liang H. Amine-intercalated α-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives. Appl Surf Sci 329: 384–389 (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The author(s) 2019

Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor E. Uflyand
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vladimir A. Zhinzhilo
    • 1
  • Victoria E. Burlakova
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistrySouthern Federal UniversityRostov-on-DonRussian Federation
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryDon State Technical UniversityRostov-on-DonRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations