, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 227–236 | Cite as

Influence of contact pressure and sliding speed dependence on the tribological characteristics of an activated carbon-epoxy composite derived from palm kernel under dry sliding conditions

  • Dayang Nor Fatin Mahmud
  • Mohd Fadzli Bin AbdollahEmail author
  • Nor Azmmi Bin Masripan
  • Noreffendy Tamaldin
  • Hilmi Amiruddin
Open Access
Research Article


The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of contact pressure and sliding speed on the coefficient of friction and wear of an activated carbon-epoxy composite derived from palm kernel under dry sliding conditions. A wear mode map approach was employed to identify the transitions from mild to severe wear of the composite. The dry sliding test was executed by utilizing a ball-on-disc tribometer at different contact pressures and sliding speeds with a constant sliding distance and operating temperature. The results showed that, regardless of the sliding speed, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the composite increased drastically when a critical limit of contact pressure is exceeded. As for the sliding speed, both the friction coefficient and wear rate increased first and thereafter decreased at a higher speed of 500 rpm. A wear mode map is proposed to classify the boundary from mild to severe wear regimes. The predominant wear failures identified include micro-crack, fine grooves, debonding, delamination, debris, broken carbon, and fracture.


activated carbon agriculture waste palm kernel friction and wear pressure and speed 



The author, Dayang Nor Fatin MAHMUD gratefully acknowledges the scholarship from MyBRAIN UTeM for his Master study. This research is supported by the grant from the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (Grant number: FRGS/1/2016/TK10/FKMCARE/F00315). In addition, the authors gratefully acknowledge contributions from the members of the Green Tribology and Engine Performance (G-Tribo-E) Research Group.


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© The author(s) 2018

Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dayang Nor Fatin Mahmud
    • 1
  • Mohd Fadzli Bin Abdollah
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nor Azmmi Bin Masripan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Noreffendy Tamaldin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hilmi Amiruddin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Teknikal Malaysia MelakaHang Tuah Jaya, Durian TunggalMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Advanced Research on EnergyUniversiti Teknikal Malaysia MelakaHang Tuah Jaya, Durian TunggalMalaysia

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