pp 1–16 | Cite as

Influence of alumina/MWCNT hybrid nanoparticle additives on tribological properties of lubricants in turning operations

  • Anuj Kumar Sharma
  • Jitendra Kumar Katiyar
  • Shubrajit Bhaumik
  • Sandipan Roy
Open Access
Research Article


A hybrid lubricant with improved thermal and tribological properties was developed by blending multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with alumina-based nanoparticles into cutting fluid at fixed volumetric proportions (10:90). The hybrid cutting fluid was prepared in different volumetric concentrations (0.25, 0.75, and 1.25 vol%), and the tribological properties and contact angles were measured using pin-on-disc tribometry and goniometry, respectively. The study showed a reduction in wear and friction coefficient with increasing nanoparticle concentration. The cutting fluid performance was investigated using minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) in the turning of AISI 304 stainless steel. Regression models were developed for measuring the temperature and tool flank wear in terms of cutting speed, feed, depth of the cut, and nanoparticle concentration using response surface methodology. The developed hybrid nanolubricants significantly reduced the tool flank wear and nodal temperature by 11% and 27.36%, respectively, as compared to alumina-based lubricants.


hybrids nanolubricants MQL MWCNT tool wear friction coefficient 


  1. [1]
    Maruda R, Legutko S, Krolczyk G. Influence of minimum quantity cooling lubrication (MQCL) on chip formation zone factors and shearing force in turning AISI 1045 steel. Applied Mechanics and Materials 657: 43–47 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Attanasio, Gelfi M, Giardini C, Remino C. Minimal quantity lubrication in turning: Effect on tool wear. Wear 260: 333–338 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Maruda R, Legutko S, Krolczyk G. Effect of minimum quantity cooling lubrication (MQCL) on chip morphology and surface roughness in turning low carbon steels. Applied Mechanics and Materials 657: 38–42 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Cantero J L, lvarez J D, lez M H M, Mari´n N C. Analysis of tool wear patterns in finishing turning of Inconel 718. Wear 297: 885–894 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Klocke F, Settineri L, Lung D, Priarone P C, Arft M. High performance cutting of gamma titanium aluminides: Influence of lubricoolant strategy on tool wear and surface integrity. Wear 302: 1136–1144 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Maruda R W, Krolczyk G M, Feldshtein E, Nieslony P, Tyliszczak B, Pusavec F. Tool wear characterizations in finish turning of AISI 1045 carbon steel for MQCL conditions. Wear 372–373: 54–67 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Sartori S, Ghiotti A, Bruschi S. Hybrid lubricating/cooling strategies to reduce the tool wear in finishing turning of difficult-to-cut alloys. Wear 376–377: 107–114 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Sharma A K, Tiwari A K, Dixit A R, Singh R K. Novel uses of alumina-MoS2 hybrid nanoparticle enriched cutting fluid in hard turning of AISI 304 steel. Journal of Manufacturing Processes 30: 467–482 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Sharma A K, Tiwari A K, Dixit A R, Singh R K. Investigation into performance of SiO2 nanoparticle based cutting fluid in machining process. Materials Today: Proceedings 4: 133–141 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Tiwari A K, Ghosh P, Sarkar J. Investigation of thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. Journal of Environmental Research and Development 7(2): 768–777 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Vajjha R S, Das D K. A review and analysis on influence of temperature and concentration of nanofluids on thermophysical properties, heat transfer and pumping power. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55: 4063–4078 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Yang Y. Carbon nanofluids for lubricant application. PhD Thesis. University of Kentucky, United States, 2006.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Choi S U S, Zhang Z G, Yu W, Lockwood F E, Grulke E A. Anomalous thermal conductivity enhancement in nanotube suspensions. Applied Physics Letters 79(14): 2252–2254 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Sharma A K, Tiwari A K, Dixit A R. Progress of nanofluid application in machining: A review. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 30(7): 813–828 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Lee C G, Hwang Y J, Choi Y M, Lee J K, Choi C, Oh J M. A study on the tribological characteristics of graphite nano lubricants. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing 10(1): 85–90 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Reddy N S K, Rao P V. Experimental investigation to study the effect of solid lubricants on cutting forces and surface quality in end milling. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacturing 46: 189–198 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Kaynak Y, Karaca H E, Noebe R D, Jawahir I S. Tool-wear analysis in cryogenic machining of NiTi shape memory alloys: A comparison of tool-wear performance with dry and MQL machining. Wear 306: 51–63 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Singh R K, Sharma A K, Dixit A R, Tiwari A K, Pramanik A, Mandal A. Performance evaluation of alumina-graphene hybrid nano-cutting fluid in hard turning. Journal of Cleaner Production, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.104 (2017)Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Amrita M, Srikant R R, Sitaramaraju A V. Performance evaluation of nanographite-based cutting fluid in machining process. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 29: 600–605 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Yasar H S, Heris H Z, Shanbedi M. Influence of soluble oil-based TiO2 nanofluid on heat transfer performance of cutting fluid. Tribology International 112: 147–154 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Parás L P, Tijerina J T, Garza L, Cortés D M, Michalczewski R, Lapray C. Effect of CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticle additives on the tribological behavior of fully formulated oils. Wear 332–333: 1256–1261 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Roy S, Ghosh A. High speed turning of AISI 4140 steel using nanofluid through twin jet SQL system. In ASME International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Wisconsin, Madison, June 10-14, 2013.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Jingxuan G, Gary C B, David J S, Qian Z, Scott B J. Tribological properties of ZnO and WS2 nanofluids using different surfactants. Wear 382–383: 8–14 (2017)Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Sarkar J, Ghosh P. A review on hybrid nanofluids: Recent research, development and applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 43: 164–177 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Tanshen M R, Lee S, Kim J, Kang D, Noh J, Chung H, Jeong H, Huh S. Pressure distribution inside oscillating heat pipe charged with aqueous Al2O3 nanoparticles, MWCNTs and their hybrid. Journal of Central South University 21: 2341–2348 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Nine M J, Batmunkh M, Kim J H, Chung H S, Jeong H M. Investigation of Al2O3-MWCNTs hybrid dispersion in water and their thermal characterization. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 12: 4553–4559 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Ahammed N, Asirvatham L G, Wongwises S. Entropy generation analysis of graphene-alumina hybrid nanofluid in multiport mini channel heat exchanger coupled with thermoelectric. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 103: 1084–1097 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Zhang Y, Li C, Jia D, Li B, Wang Y, Yang M, Hou Y, Zhang X. Experimental study on the effect of nanoparticle concentration on the lubricating property of nanofluids for MQL grinding of Ni-based alloy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 232: 100–115 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Abbasi S M, Rashidi A, Nemati A, Arzani K. The effect of functionalization method on the stability and the thermal conductivity of nanofluid hybrids of carbon nanotubes/gamma alumina. Ceramic International 39: 3885–3891 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Kanthavel K, Sumesh K, Saravanakumar P. Study of tribological properties on Al/Al2O3/MoS2 hybrid composite processed by powder metallurgy. Alexandria Engineering Journal 55: 13–17 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Khandekar S, Sankar M R, Agnihotri V, Ramkumar J. Nano-cutting fluid for enhancement of metal cutting performance. materials and manufacturing processes 27: 963–967 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Wasan D, Nikolov A, Kondiparty K. The wetting and spreading of nanofluids on solids: Role of the structural disjoining pressure. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 16: 344–349 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Park K H, Ewald B, Kwon P Y. Effect of nano-enhanced lubricant in minimum quantity lubrication balling milling. Journal of Tribology 133: 31803 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Sharma A K, Tiwari A K, Dixit A R. Improved machining performance with nanoparticle enriched cutting fluids under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique: A review. Materials today: Proceedings 2: 3545–3551 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Dai W, Kheireddin B, Gao H, Liang H. Roles of nanoparticles in oil lubrication. Tribology International 102: 88–98 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The author(s) 2018

Open Access The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anuj Kumar Sharma
    • 1
  • Jitendra Kumar Katiyar
    • 1
  • Shubrajit Bhaumik
    • 1
  • Sandipan Roy
    • 1
  1. 1.Tribology and Surface Interaction Research Lab, Department of Mechanical EngineeringSRM Institute of Science and Technology KattankulathurTamil NaduIndia

Personalised recommendations