Advertisement

Friction

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 32–46 | Cite as

Anti-loosening performance of coatings on fasteners subjected to dynamic shear load

  • Junbo Zhou
  • Jianhua Liu
  • Huajiang Ouyang
  • Zhenbing Cai
  • Jinfang Peng
  • Minhao Zhu
Open Access
Research Article
  • 1.4k Downloads

Abstract

This paper investigates the self-loosening of threaded fasteners subjected to dynamic shear load. Three kinds of typical coatings, PTFE, MoS2, and TiN applied to bolts and nuts, are tested in this investigation. The study experimentally examines the loosening mechanisms of fasteners and assesses the anti-loosening performance of the three tested coatings based on their tightening characteristics, loosening curves, and the damage of thread surface. Additionally, the anti-loosening performance of the three coatings is compared under different load forms. The results indicate that the PTFE and MoS2 coatings have significant anti-loosening effect, whereas the anti-loosening performance of TiN coating is not satisfactory. It is also found that an appropriate increase of the initial tightening torque can significantly improve the anti-loosening effect. In addition, the microscopic analyses of PTFE and MoS2 coating reveal that a reduced initial tightening torque leads to fretting wear on the thread contact surfaces of fasteners, thereby aggravating the damage.

Keywords

bolted fastener loosening curve fretting coating dynamic shear load 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the National Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 51025519), the Changjiang Scholarships and Innovation Team Development Plan (No. IRT1178), and the Self-Topic Fund of Traction Power State Key Laboratory (No. 2016TPL-Z03).

References

  1. [1]
    Goodier J N, Sweeney R J. Loosening by vibration of threaded fastenings. Mech Eng 67: 794–800 (1945)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Basava S, Hess D P. Bolted joint clamping force variation due to axial vibration. Sound and Vibration 210(2): 255–265 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Sakai T. Mechanism for a bolt and nut self-loosening under repeated bolt axial tensile load. Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering 5(11): 627–639 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Nassar S A, Yang X X, Gandham S V T, Wu Z J. Nonlinear deformation behavior of clamped bolted joints under a separating service load. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology 133(2): 021001 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Yang X X, Nassar S A, Wu Z J, Meng A D. Nonlinear behavior of preloaded bolted joints under a cyclic separating load. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology 134(1): 011206 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Liu J H, Ouyang H J, Peng J F, Zhang C B, Zhou P Y, Ma L J, Zhu M H. Experimental and numerical studies of bolted joints subjected to axial excitation. Wear 346–347: 66–77 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Junker G H. New criteria for self-loosening fasteners under vibration. SAE, Transactions 78: 314–335 (1969)Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Sase N, Nishioka K, Koga S, Fujii H. An anti-loosening screw-fastener innovation and its evaluation. Materials Processing Technology 77: 209–215 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Pai N G, Hess D P. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of threaded fastener loosening due to dynamic shear load. Engineering Failure Analysis 9: 383–402 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Pai N G, Hess D P. Experimental study of loosening of threaded fastener due to dynamic shear loads. Sound and vibration 253(3): 585–602 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Dinger G, Friedrich C. Avoiding self-loosening failure of bolted joints with numerical assessment of local contact state. Engineering Failure Analysis 18(8): 2188–2200 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Shoji Y, Sawa T. Analytical research on mechanism of bolt loosening due to lateral loads. In ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA, 2005.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Yang G X, Xie J L, Xie Y Y. Study on mechanism of anti-loosening of a new type of nut based on fem. (in Chinese). Engineering mechanics 12: 224–243 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Jiang Y, Zhang M, Chu-Hwa Lee. A study of early stage self-loosening of bolted joints. Mechanical Design 125(3): 518–526 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Jiang, Y, Zhang M, Park T-W, Lee C-H. An experimental study of self-loosening of bolted joints. Mechanical Design 126(5): 925–931 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Zhang M, Jiang Y, Lee C-H. Finite element modeling of self-loosening of bolted joints. Mechanical Design 129(2): 218–266 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Zhang M, Jiang Y, Lee C H. An experimental investigation of the effects of clamped length and loading direction on self-loosening of bolted joints. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology 128(3):129–136 (2004)Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Housari B A, Nassar S A. Effect of thread and bearing friction coefficients on the vibration-induced loosening of threaded fasteners. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 129(4): 484–494 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Zaki A M, Nassar S A, Yang X. Effect of thread and bearing friction coefficients on the self-loosening of preloaded countersunk-head bolts under periodic transverse excitation. Journal of Tribology 132(3): 031601–1 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Sanclemente J A, Hess D P. Parametric study of threaded fastener loosening due to cyclic transverse loads. Engineering Failure Analysis 14: 239–249 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Anirban B, Avijit S, Santanu D. An investigation on the anti-loosening characteristics of threaded fasteners under vibratory conditions. Mechanism and Machine Theory 45: 1215–1225 (2010)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Sase N, Fujii H. Optimizing study of SLBs for higher anti-loosening performance. Materials Processing Technology 119: 174–179 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Izumi S, Yokoyama T, Kimurab M, Sakaia S. Looseningresistance evaluation of double-nut tightening method and spring washer by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Engineering Failure Analysis 16(5): 1510–1519 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Zou Q, Sun T S, Nassar S A, Barber G C, Gumul A K. Effect of lubrication on friction and torque-tension relationship in threaded fasteners. In STLE/ASME International Joint Tribology Conference San Antonio, TX, USA, 2006.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Housari, B A, Nassar, S A. Effect of thread and bearing friction coefficients on the vibration-induced loosening of threaded fasteners. Vibration and Acoustics 129: 484–494 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Daadbin A, Chow Y M. A theoretical model to study thread loosening. Mechanics and Machine Theory 27: 69–74 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Karamiş M B, Selçuk B. Analysis of the friction behavior of bolted joints. Wear 166(1): 73–83 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Nassar S A, Zaki A M. Effect of coating thickness on the friction coefficients and torque-tension relationship in threaded fasteners. Journal of Tribology 31: 021301–1 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Bickford J H. Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints (4th ed). The Chemical Rubber Company Press, Florida, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Fan X Q, Xue Q J, Wang L P. Carbon-based solid–liquid lubricating coatings for space applications─A review. Friction 3(3): 191–207 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Yuan X D, Yang X J. A study on friction and wear properties of PTFE coatings under vacuum conditions. Wear 269: 291–297 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Luo J, Zhu M H, Wang Y D, Zheng J F, Mo J L. Study on rotational fretting wear of bonded MoS2 solid lubricant coating prepared on medium carbon steel. Tribology International 44: 1565–1570 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Shan L, Wang Y X, Li J L, Li H. Wu X D, Chen J M. Tribological behaviours of PVD TiN and TiCN coatings in artificial seawater. Surface & Coatings Technology 226: 40–50 (2013)Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Paskvale S, Remškar M, Čekada M. Tribological performance of TiN, TiAlN and CrN hard coatings lubricated by MoS2 nanotubes in Polyalphaolefin oil. Wear 352–353: 72–78 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Cheng D X. Handbook of Mechanical Design. (in Chinese). Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2016.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Nassar S A, El-Khiamy H, Barber, G C, Zuo D J, Sun T S. An experimental study of bearing and thread friction in fasteners. Journal of Tribology 127(2): 263–272 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Nassar S A, Barber G C, Zuo D J. Bearing friction torque in bolted joints. Tribology Transactions 48: 69–75 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Yu Z T, Liu J H, Zhang C Q, Zhou J B, Peng J F, Ma L J, Zhu M H. An experimental study on self-Loosening of bolted joints under axial vibration. (in Chinese). Tribology 35(6): 732–736 (2015)Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Yamamoto A. Theory and Calculation of Thread Connection. (in Chinese). Translated by Guo K Q, Gao S J, Wang X F, Xu A L. Shanghai: shanghai scientific and technological literature press, 1982.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Zhao H. Analysis of the load distribution in a bolt-nut connector. Computers and Structures 53(6): 1465–1472 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Liu J H, Ouyang H J, Ma L J, Zhang C Q, Zhu M H. Numerical and theoretical studies of bolted joints under harmonic shear displacement. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 12(1): 115–132 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Zhou Z R, Zhu M H. Dual-fretting Wear. (in Chinese). Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Liu J H. Research on the self-loosening mechanism of bolted joints under axial excitation. Ph. D Thesis. Sichuan (China): Southwest Jiaotong University, 2016.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The author(s) 2017

Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junbo Zhou
    • 1
  • Jianhua Liu
    • 1
  • Huajiang Ouyang
    • 2
  • Zhenbing Cai
    • 1
  • Jinfang Peng
    • 1
  • Minhao Zhu
    • 1
  1. 1.Tribology Research InstituteSouthwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.School of EngineeringUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations