The tribo-characteristics of metal forming at high temperatures have not yet been well understood due to the complex nature of thermal, microstructural, interaction, and process parameters. This is a review paper on the effects of temperature, coating, and lubrication to the tribological characteristics in hot forming as well as the tribometers for different metal forming processes at elevated temperatures mainly based on the experimental work. The tribological behaviors of oxides in hot forming, such as rolling and stamping, were reviewed and presented. Some commonly used surface coatings and lubricants in hot forming were given. Many types of tribometer were selected and presented and some of them provided a great potential to characterize friction and wear at elevated temperatures. Nevertheless, more testing conditions should be further investigated by developing new tribometers. Eventually, experimental results obtained from reliable tribometers could be used in theory and model developments for different forming processes and materials at high temperatures. The review also showed the great potential in further investigations and innovation in tribology.
Kleiner M, Geiger M, Klaus A. Manufacturing of lightweight components by metal forming. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 52(2): 521–542 (2003)
Kleiner M, Chatti S, Klaus A. Metal forming techniques for lightweight construction. J Mater Process Tech 177(1–3): 2–7 (2006)
Yanagimoto J, Oyamada K, Nakagawa T. Springback of high-strength steel after hot and warm sheet formings. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 54(1): 213–216 (2005)
Karbasian H, Tekkaya A E. A review on hot stamping. J Mater Process Tech 210(15): 2103–2118 (2010)
Lin Y C, Chen X M. A critical review of experimental results and constitutive descriptions for metals and alloys in hot working. Mater Design 32(4): 1733–1759 (2011)
Wagoner R H, Lim H, Lee M G. Advanced issues in springback. Int J Plasticity 45: 3–20 (2013)
Pelcastre L, Hardell J, Prakash B. Investigations into the occurrence of galling during hot forming of Al-Si-coated high-strength steel. Proc IMechE, Part J: J Eng Tribol 225(6): 487–498 (2011)
Kondratiuk J, Kuhn P. Tribological investigation on friction and wear behaviour of coatings for hot sheet metal forming. Wear 270(11–12): 839–849 (2011)
Ghiotti A, Bruschi S, Sgarabotto F, Bariani P F. Tribological performances of Zn-based coating in direct hot stamping. Tribol Int 78: 142–151 (2014)
Tomala A, Hernandez S, Rodriguez Ripoll M, Badisch E, Prakash B. Tribological performance of some solid lubricants for hot forming through laboratory simulative tests. Tribol Int 74: 164–173 (2014)
M Schütze. Protective Oxide Scale. Sheffield UK, 1991.
Aouadi S M, Gao H, Martini A, Scharf T W, Muratore C. Lubricious oxide coatings for extreme temperature applications: A review. Surf Coat Tech 257: 266–277 (2014)
Erdemir, A. A crystal-chemical approach to lubrication by solid oxides. Tribol Lett 8(2–3): 97–102 (2000)
Zhou C H, Ma H T, Wang L. Comparative study of oxidation kinetics for pure nickel oxidized under tensile and compressive stress. Corros Sci 52(1): 210–215 (2010)
Blau P J, Brummett T M, Pint B A. Effects of prior surface damage on high-temperature oxidation of fe-, ni-, and co-based alloys. Wear 267(1–4): 380–386 (2009)
Ilo S, Tomala A, Badisch E. Oxidative wear kinetics in unlubricated steel sliding contact. Tribol Int 44(10): 1208–1215 (2011)
Suárez L, Houbaert Y, Eynde X V, Colás R. High temperature deformation of oxide scale. Corros Sci 51(2): 309–315 (2009)
Utsunomiya H, Doi S, Hara K-I, Sakai T, Yanagi S. Deformation of oxide scale on steel surface during hot rolling. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58(1): 271–274 (2009)
Wei D B, Huang J X, Zhang A W, Jiang Z Y, Tieu A K, Shi X, Jiao S H. The effect of oxide scale of stainless steels on friction and surface roughness in hot rolling. Wear 271(9–10): 2417–2425 (2011)
Picqué B, Bouchard P O, Montmitonnet P, Picard M. Mechanical behaviour of iron oxide scale: Experimental and numerical study. Wear 260(3): 231–242 (2006)
Sun W, Tieu A K, Jiang Z, Zhu H, Lu C. Oxide scales growth of low-carbon steel at high temperatures. J Mater Process Tech 155–156: 1300–1306 (2004)
Pellizzari M, Molinari A, Straffelini G. Tribological behaviour of hot rolling rolls. Wear 259(7–12): 1281–1289 (2005)
Pellizzari M, Cescato D, De Flora M G. Hot friction and wear behaviour of high speed steel and high chromium iron for rolls. Wear 267(1–4): 467–475 (2009)
Pellizzari M, De Flora M G. Influence of laser hardening on the tribological properties of forged steel for hot rolls. Wear 271(9–10): 2402–2411 (2011)
Vergne C, Boher C, Levaillant C, Gras R. Analysis of the friction and wear behavior of hot work tool scale: application to the hot rolling process. Wear 250(1–12): 322–333 (2001)
Joos O, Boher C, Vergne C, Gaspard C, Nylen T, Rezaï-Aria F. Assessment of oxide scales influence on wear damage of HSM work rolls. Wear 263(1–6): 198–206 (2007)
Zamri W F H. A study of the mechanical properties and wear behaviour of the oxide layer formed on high speed steel work rolls. PhD thesis. New South Wales (Australia): University of Wollongong, 2013.
Panjkovic V. Friction and the Hot Rolling of Steel. Taylor & Francis, 2014.
Rosso M, Actis Grande M, Ugues D. Tooling materials and their applications from research to market. In Proceedings of 7th International Tooling Conference, Politechnico di Torino, Turin, Italy, 2006.
Matsumoto R, Osumi Y, Utsunomiya H. Reduction of friction of steel covered with oxide scale in hot forging. J Mater Process Tech 214(3): 651–659 (2014)
Garza-Montes-de Oca N F, Rainforth W M. Wear mechanisms experienced by a work roll grade high speed steel under different environmental conditions. Wear 267(1–4): 441–448 (2009)
Turetta A, Bruschi S, Ghiotti A. Investigation of 22MnB5 formability in hot stamping operations. J Mater Process Tech 177(1–3): 396–400 (2006)
Bariani P F, Bruschi S, Ghiotti A, Turetta A. Testing formability in the hot stamping of HSS. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 57(1): 265–268 (2008)
Hardell J, Kassfeldt E, Prakash B. Friction and wear behaviour of high strength boron steel at elevated temperatures of up to 800 °C. Wear 264(9–10): 788–799 (2008)
Hardell J, Prakash B. High-temperature friction and wear behaviour of different tool steels during sliding against Al-Si-coated high-strength steel. Tribol Int 41(7): 663–671 (2008)
Pelcastre L, Hardell J, Prakash B. Galling mechanisms during interaction of tool steel and Al-Si coated ultra-high strength steel at elevated temperature. Tribol Int 67: 263–271 (2013)
Ghiotti A, Sgarabotto F, Bruschi S. A novel approach to wear testing in hot stamping of high strength boron steel sheets. Wear 302(1–2): 1319–1326 (2013)
Dessain C, Hein P H, Wilsius J, Penazzi L, Boher C, Weikerts J. Experimental investigation of friction and wear in hot stamping of Usibor 1500P. In Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel, Kassel, Germany, 2008: 217–227.
Boher C, Le Roux S, Penazzi L, Dessain C. Experimental investigation of the tribological behavior and wear mechanisms of tool steel grades in hot stamping of a high-strength boron steel. Wear 294–295: 286–295 (2012)
Le Roux S, Boher C, Penazzi L, Dessain C, Tavernier B. A methodology and new criteria to quantify the adhesive and abrasive wear damage on a die radius using white light profilometry. Tribol Int 52: 40–49 (2012)
Stott F H, Wood G C. The influence of oxides on the friction and wear of alloys. Tribol Int 11(4): 211–218 (1978)
Barnes D J, Wilson J E, Stott F H, Wood G C. The influence of oxide films on the friction and wear of fe-5% cr alloy in controlled environments. Wear 45(2): 161–176 (1977)
Blau P J. Elevated-temperature tribology of metallic materials. Tribol Int 43(7): 1203–1208 (2010)
Jiang J, Stott F H, Stack M M. A generic model for dry sliding wear of metals at elevated temperatures. Wear 256(9–10): 973–985 (2004)
Jiang J, Stott F H, Stack M M. The role of triboparticulates in dry sliding wear. Tribol Int 31(5): 245–256 (1998).
Inman I A, Datta P K, Du H L, Burnell-Gray J S, Pierzgalski S, Luo Q. Studies of high temperature sliding wear of metallic dissimilar interfaces. Tribol Int 38(9): 812–823 (2005)
Lepesant P, Boher C, Berthier Y, Rézai-Aria F. A phenomenological model of the third body particles circulation in a high temperature contact. Wear 298–299: 66–79 (2013)
Wood P D, Evans H E, Ponton C B. Investigation into the wear behaviour of tribaloy 400 °C during rotation as an unlubricated bearing at 600 °C. Wear 269(11–12): 763–769 (2010)
Sjöström J, Bergström J. Thermal fatigue testing of chromium martensitic hot-work tool steel after different austenitizing treatments. J Mater Process Tech 153–154: 1089–1096 (2004)
Persson A, Hogmark S, Bergström J. Thermal fatigue cracking of surface engineered hot work tool steels. Surf Coat Tech 191(2–3): 216–227 (2005)
Tsubouchi K, Akiyama M, Tsumura M, Amano S. Development of a wear-resistant surface layer for a tool to be used for high-temperature stainless steel rolling. Proc IMechE, Part J: J Eng Tribol 213(6): 473–480 (1999)
Podgornik B, Hogmark S. Surface modification to improve friction and galling properties of forming tools. J Mater Process Tech 174(1–3): 334–341 (2006)
Rodríguez-Baracaldo R, Benito J A, Puchi-Cabrera E S, Staia M H. High temperature wear resistance of (TiAl)N PVD coating on untreated and gas nitrided AISI H13 steel with different heat treatments. Wear 262(3-4): 380–389 (2007)
Özgür A E, Yalçñ B, Koru M. Investigation of the wear performance and thermal diffusivity properties of M41 tools steel coated with various film coatings. Mater Design 30(2): 414–417 (2009)
Polcar T, Martinez R, Vítů T, Kopecký L, Rodriguez R, Cavaleiro A. High temperature tribology of CrN and multilayered Cr/CrN coatings. Surf Coat Tech 203(20–21): 3254–3259 (2009)
Hardell J, Prakash B. Tribological performance of surface engineered tool steel at elevated temperatures. Int J Refract Met H Mater 28(1): 106–114 (2010)
Li L X, Peng D S, Liu J A, Liu Z Q. An experiment study of the lubrication behavior of graphite in hot compression tests of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. J Mater Process Tech 112(1): 1–5 (2001)
Matsumoto R, Osakada K. Lubrication and friction of magnesium alloys in warm forging. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 51(1): 223–226 (2002)
Daouben E, Dubois A, Dubar M, Dubar L, Deltombe R, Truong Dinh N G, Lazzarotto L. Effects of lubricant and lubrication parameters on friction during hot steel forging. Int J Mater Form 1(1): 1223–1226 (2008)
Buchner B, Maderthoner G, Buchmayr B. Characterisation of different lubricants concerning the friction coefficient in forging of AA2618. J Mater Process Tech 198(1–3): 41–47 (2008)
Yanagida A, Azushima A. Evaluation of coefficients of friction in hot stamping by hot flat drawing test. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58(1): 247–250 (2009)
Kawai N, Dohda K. Problems in the weldability test. Journal of JSTP 24–265: 137–146 (1983)
Dohda K. Friction test method for plastic forming. Journal of JSTP 34–393: 1091–1099 (1993)
Dohda K, Wang Z G. Current status and future trend of tribo-simulator for sheet metal forming. Journal of JSTP 39–455: 1180–1184 (1998)
Dohda K, Makino T. Tribology in micro/meso-scale forming. Journal of JSTP 49–570: 638–642 (2008)
Munther P, Lenard J G. Tribology during hot, flat rolling of steels. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 44(1): 213–216 (1995)
Beynon J H. Tribology of hot metal forming. Tribol Int 31(1–3): 73–77 (1998)
Groche P, Callies T. Tribology in sheet metal forming with regard to challenges in lightweight construction. Adv Mat Res 6–8: 93–100 (2005)
Mori K, Maeno T, Fuzisaka S. Punching of ultra-high strength steel sheets using local resistance heating of shearing zone. J Mater Process Tech 212(2): 534–540 (2012)
Groche P, Müller C, Stahlmann J, Zang S. Mechanical conditions in bulk metal forming tribometers—Part one. Tribol Int 62: 223–231 (2012)
Groche P, Stahlmann J, Müller C. Mechanical conditions in bulk metal forming tribometers—Part two. Tribol Int 66: 345–351 (2013)
Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus. ASTM Standard G99, 2010.
Marzouki M, Kowandy C, Richard C. Experimental simulation of tool/product interface during hot drawing. Wear 262(3–4): 235–241 (2007)
Ghiotti A, Bruschi S, Borsetto F. Tribological characteristics of high strength steel sheets under hot stamping conditions. J Mater Process Tech 211(11): 1694–1700 (2011)
Zhu H, Zhu Q, Tieu A K, Kosasih B, Kong C. A simulation of wear behaviour of high-speed steel hot rolls by means of high temperature pin-on-disc tests. Wear 302(1–2): 1310–1318 (2013)
Hanna M D. Tribological evaluation of aluminum and magnesium sheet forming at high temperatures. Wear 267(5–8): 1046–1050 (2009)
Yanagida A, Kurihara T, Azushima A. Development of tribo-simulator for hot stamping. J Mater Process Tech 210(3): 456–460 (2010)
Dohda K, Makino T, Katoh H. Tribo-characteristic of coated die against magnesium in ironing process. Int J Mater Form 2: 243–246 (2009)
Gali O A, Riahi A R, Alpas A T. The tribological behaviour of AA5083 alloy plastically deformed at warm forming temperatures. Wear 302(1–2): 1257–1267 (2013)
Geiger M, Merklein M, Lechler J. Determination of tribological conditions within hot stamping. Prod Engineer 2(3): 269–276 (2008)
Ceron E, Bay N, Aida T, Dohda K. Simulative testing of friction and lubrication in cold forging of steel and aluminum. In NAMRC 40-North American Manufacturing Research Conference, Notre Dame, USA, 2012: 287–296.
Wang L, Zhou J, Duszczyk J, Katgerman L. Friction in aluminium extrusion—Part 1: A review of friction testing techniques for aluminium extrusion. Tribol Int 56: 89–98 (2012)
Standard test method for linearly reciprocating ball-on-flat sliding wear. ASTM Standard G133, 2010.
Wang L, He Y, Zhou J, Duszczyk J. Effect of temperature on the frictional behaviour of an aluminium alloy sliding against steel during ball-on-disc tests. Tribol Int 43(1–2): 299–306 (2010)
Pellizzari M. High temperature wear and friction behaviour of nitrided, PVD-duplex and CVD coated tool steel against 6082 Al alloy. Wear 271(9–10): 2089–2099 (2011)
Björk T, Bergström J, Hogmark S. Tribological simulation of aluminium hot extrusion. Wear 224(2): 216–225 (1999)
Peterson M B, Calabrese S J, Shizhuo L I, Jiang X. Friction of alloys at high temperature. Mater. Sci. Tech. 10(5): 313–320 (1994)
Mosaddegh P, Ziegert J, Iqbal W, Tohme Y. Apparatus for high temperature friction measurement. Precision Eng. 35(3): 473–483 (2011)
Saiki H, Zhan Z H, Marumo Y, Ruan L, Morooka T, Tatsuda SI. Evaluation of contact conditions in hot forging of pure aluminum using ultrasonic examination. Mater. Process. Technol. 177(1–3): 243–246 (2006)
Iida S, Hidaka Y. Influence of the iron oxide layer on lubricating properties in seamless pipe hot rolling. Tetsu-to-Hagane 94–7: 244–250 (2008)
This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Kuniaki DOHDA. He is a professor of Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, USA. His main research interests are in the interrelated area of metal forming, process tribology, surface engineering and micro/meso manufacturing. Currently, he is the president of the International Research Group of Tribology in Manufacturing (IRGTM).
Christine BOHER. She is associated professor of the Ingeneer School of Mines d’Albi Carmaux. She developed the laboratory of Tribology ICA-ALBI in 1998 and has had the scientific responsibility since. The main topics of the research laboratory are the study and modelling of the damages at the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales of surfaces in hot friction conditions taking into account environmental effects and especially oxidation.
Farhad RÉZAI-ARIA. He is a full professor at École Nationale Supérieure des Mines d’Albi-Carmaux, France (www.minesalbi.fr) and heading SUMO Groupe (Machining Surface Materias and Tools) of Institut Clément Ader (www.institut-clement-ader.eu). He is membre of Institut Mines-Télécom (l’Institut Mines-Télécom) France.
He is born in Tehran (1953). He attended the Sharif University of Technology in Tehran and received his BS degree in Metallurgy Engineering in 1976. After moving to France he obtained his PhD degree from Ecole des Mines Paris (Materials Centre) in 1986. From 1988 to 1996, as Professor assistant he was the head of the high temperature fatigue group at Mechanical Metallurgy Laboratory, Professor B. Ilschner, in Swiss Federal Institut of Technology.
Numpon MAHAYOTSANUN. He received his BS/MS and PhD degrees from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, USA. He joined Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University in 2010. In addition, he is currently the vice president of Thai Tribology Association (TTA). His research areas involve tribology in manufacturing, metal forming, and micro-manufacturing.
About this article
Cite this article
Dohda, K., Boher, C., Rezai-Aria, F. et al. Tribology in metal forming at elevated temperatures. Friction 3, 1–27 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40544-015-0077-3
- elevated temperature
- hot forming