Contact Urticaria and Protein Contact Dermatitis—a Frequently Hidden Diagnosis
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Purpose of review
We hope that this review can assist in the classification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of a contact urticaria syndrome (CUS), a syndrome in which the understanding of such is still evolving.
CUS and protein contact dermatitis (PCD) can be defined as an immediate inflammatory reaction of the skin following contact with an external substance. Erythema, wheals, and eczema, as well as other manifestations can occur as a result of this inflammatory reaction. Many low molecular weight substances and proteins are known to produce these immediate skin contact reactions. These reactions affect many occupations such as health care workers, bakers and cooks, and farmers. Nonetheless, as a subset of contact dermatitis, CUS is often misdiagnosed in part due to a lack of understanding and mild severity of its clinical manifestations.
A detailed history that elicits environmental and occupational contacts, duration of contacts as well as a detailed understanding of CUS is fundamental to its proper diagnosis.
KeywordsContact uricaria Protein contact dermatitis Immunologic contact urticaria Nonimmunologic contact urticaria
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Austin Jiang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Howard Maibach declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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