Precision Medicine in the Management of Drug Allergy
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Purpose of study
The term precision medicine has been developed in the last five or more years to describe the concept of treating patients individually based on a variety of factors. Precision medicine can be applied to the field of drug allergy where phenotypes, endotypes, and biomarkers have been defined.
Phenotypes of drug allergy can be based on (1) the mechanism of the underlying reaction; (2) the clinical presentation of the reaction; and (3) the timing of the reaction in regards to exposure to the drug. Endotypes of drug allergy can be defined based on mechanisms, pharmacologic processes, and human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. Lastly, biomarkers utilized in drug allergy include skin tests, specific IgE tests, basophil activation tests, cellular-based assays, mediator measurement, drug patch tests, and genotyping. The approach to penicillin allergy in recent years highlights the application of precision medicine in drug allergy.
KeywordsPrecision medicine Drug allergy Hypersensitivity Phenotype Endotype Biomarker Penicillin allergy
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and informed consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as:• Of importance •• Of major importance
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