Current Treatment Options in Allergy

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 60–73 | Cite as

Precision Medicine in the Management of Drug Allergy

  • David A. Khan
Drug Allergy (MJ Torres Jaén, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Drug Allergy


Purpose of study

The term precision medicine has been developed in the last five or more years to describe the concept of treating patients individually based on a variety of factors. Precision medicine can be applied to the field of drug allergy where phenotypes, endotypes, and biomarkers have been defined.

Recent findings

Phenotypes of drug allergy can be based on (1) the mechanism of the underlying reaction; (2) the clinical presentation of the reaction; and (3) the timing of the reaction in regards to exposure to the drug. Endotypes of drug allergy can be defined based on mechanisms, pharmacologic processes, and human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. Lastly, biomarkers utilized in drug allergy include skin tests, specific IgE tests, basophil activation tests, cellular-based assays, mediator measurement, drug patch tests, and genotyping. The approach to penicillin allergy in recent years highlights the application of precision medicine in drug allergy.


Precision medicine Drug allergy Hypersensitivity Phenotype Endotype Biomarker Penicillin allergy 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Trial registration

Not applicable.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as:• Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy & ImmunologyUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

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