Anaphylaxis in the Workplace
Occupational anaphylaxis (OcAn) main causes comprise food, medications, insect stings/bites, and natural rubber latex (NRL). An in-depth investigation is required, before labeling a reaction as OcAn.
A written emergency management plan, health and safety education, and training and surveillance should be implemented after proper diagnosis. Education on when and how to use the adrenaline auto-injector device should be provided likewise. Moreover, surveillance and advice on risk of allergen exposure and how to minimize their risk of sensitization at the beginning of their employment or training is mandatory. Workers who have developed sensitization to an allergen in the occupational setting may also develop anaphylaxis outside the work environment, from exposure to the same or to cross-reacting allergens. We believe that removal from exposure shall avoid subsequent OcAn episodes; therefore, once OcAn has been diagnosed, this intervention shall be implemented.
This review highlights the different causes of OcAn, their physiopathology, cofactors, diagnosis, and its management, focusing on the medication spectrum. Interested readers may acquire knowledge on this severe, potentially life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction, which generally involves an immunologic IgE mechanism.
KeywordsAnaphylaxis Occupational diseases Epinephrine Hypersensitivity Allergy Environment
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Darío Antolín-Amérigo declares that he has no conflicts of interest.
Alberto Álvarez-Perea declares that he has no conflicts of interest.
Ana Fiandor declares that she has no conflicts of interest.
Human and animal rights and informed consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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