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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) (in parentheses) of frailty indexes, self-reported ability to walk 400 m and self-rated health for institutionalization during the 10-year follow-up

From: Frailty, walking ability and self-rated health in predicting institutionalization: an 18-year follow-up study among Finnish community-dwelling older people

  Non-institutionalized n (%) Institutionalized n (%) Deceased n (%) Unadjusted HR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted R (95% CI)a P-value
FRAIL scale (n = 1087)
 Robust (n = 710) 496 (70) 74 (10) 140 (20) 1   1  
 Pre-frail (n = 350) 158 (45) 75 (21) 117 (33) 2.25 (1.63–3.10)  < .001 1.48 (1.04–2.10) .030
 Frail (n = 27) 1 (4) 8 (30) 18 (67) 3.32 (1.57–7.00) .002 1.33 (0.57–3.11) .505
Frailty index (n = 1061)
 Robust (n = 197) 164 (83) 8 (4) 25 (13) 1   1  
 Pre-frail (n = 596) 402 (67) 64 (11) 130 (22) 2.74 (1.32–5.69) .007 2.32 (1.12–4.79) .023
 Frail (n = 268) 76 (28) 79 (29) 113 (42) 8.82 (4.28–18.20)  < .001 4.50 (2.11–9.63)  < .001
PRISMA-7 (n = 1055)
 Robust (n = 860) 613 (71) 85 (10) 162 (19) 1    
 Frail (n = 195) 42 (22) 63 (32) 90 (46) 3.95 (2.85–5.49)  < .001   
Self-reported ability to walk 400 m (n = 1101)
 Yes (n = 1011) 653 (65) 123 (12) 235 (23) 1   1  
 No (n = 90) 9 (10) 39 (43) 42 (47) 4.82 (3.29–7.05)  < .001 2.06 (1.25–3.41) .005
Self-rated health (n = 1105)
 Good (n = 446) 321 (72) 52 (12) 73 (16) 1   1  
 Moderate (n = 500) 298 (60) 68 (14) 134 (27) 1.18 (0.82‒1.69) .380 1.07 (0.74‒1.54) .73
 Poor (n = 159) 46 (29) 42 (26) 71 (45) 2.51 (1.67‒3.77)  < .0001 1.59 (1.00‒2.53) .05
  1. aValues are adjusted for age and gender (items included in PRISMA-7)