Isometric handgrip training reduces blood pressure and wave reflections in East Asian, non-medicated, middle-aged and older adults: a randomized control trial

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of isometric handgrip (IHG) training on central and peripheral blood pressure (BP) and wave reflections in East Asian non-medicated middle-aged and older adults.

Methods

Twenty-two men and women (mean age 65 ± 11 years) who were not actively involved in regular resistance or endurance training were randomly assigned to a group that did IHG and a control (CON) group. The IHG training was comprised of four unilateral 2-min isometric contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction using a programmed handgrip dynamometer with 1-min rest periods for 5 days per week for 8 weeks.

Results

Baseline central systolic BP (cSBP), brachial systolic BP (bSBP), brachial diastolic BP (bDBP), and the augmentation index (AIx) (via an automated applanation tonometric system) did not differ significantly between the groups. Compared to baseline, cSBP, bSBP, bDBP, and AIx decreased significantly after the 8-week study period in the IHG group (P < 0.05). No significant changes in central and peripheral BP and AIx were observed in the CON group.

Conclusions

These results suggest that IHG training could reduce central and peripheral BP and wave reflections in East Asian non-medicated middle-aged and older adults.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Bush TL (1991) The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in older persons. Aging Clin Exp Res 3:3–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03323965

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kanejima Y, Kitamura M, Izawa KP (2019) Self-monitoring to increase physical activity in patients with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging Clin Exp Res 31:163–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-018-0960-7

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Metter EJ, Fleg JL, Brant LJ et al (1991) Effect of age of entry to a longitudinal study on cross-sectional determination of cardiovascular disease. Aging Clin Exp Res 3:355–360. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03324036

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N et al (2002) Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 360:1903–1913

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Group SR, Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD et al (2015) A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 373:2103–2116. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1511939

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Kollias A, Lagou S, Zeniodi ME et al (2016) Association of Central Versus Brachial Blood Pressure With Target-Organ Damage: systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Hypertension 67:183–190. https://doi.org/10.1161/hypertensionaha.115.06066

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Mitchell GF, Hwang SJ, Vasan RS et al (2010) Arterial stiffness and cardiovascular events: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 121:505–511. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.886655

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Kizer JR et al (2007) Central pressure more strongly relates to vascular disease and outcome than does brachial pressure: the Strong Heart Study. Hypertension 50:197–203. https://doi.org/10.1161/hypertensionaha.107.089078

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Sakuragi S, Abhayaratna WP (2010) Arterial stiffness: methods of measurement, physiologic determinants and prediction of cardiovascular outcomes. Int J Cardiol 138:112–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.04.027

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Brouwers FM, Courteau J, Cohen AA et al (2014) Beta-blockers are associated with increased risk of first cardiovascular events in non-diabetic hypertensive elderly patients. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 23:1139–1146. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.3675

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Carlson DJ, Dieberg G, Hess NC et al (2014) Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc 89:327–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.10.030

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Cornelissen VA, Smart NA (2013) Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc 2:e004473. https://doi.org/10.1161/jaha.112.004473

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Inder JD, Carlson DJ, Dieberg G et al (2016) Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: a systematic review and meta-analysis to optimize benefit. Hypertens Res 39:88–94. https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2015.111

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Jin YZ, Yan S, Yuan WX (2017) Effect of isometric handgrip training on resting blood pressure in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 57:154–160. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.16.05887-4

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M et al (2013) Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the american heart association. Hypertension 61:1360–1383. https://doi.org/10.1161/hyp.0b013e318293645f

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Farah BQ, Rodrigues SLC, Silva GO et al (2018) Supervised, but Not Home-Based, Isometric Training Improves Brachial and Central Blood Pressure in Medicated Hypertensive Patients: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Physiol 9:961. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00961

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Ueshima H, Sekikawa A, Miura K et al (2008) Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in Asia: a selected review. Circulation 118:2702–2709. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.790048

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Cahu-Rodrigues SL, Farah BQ, Silva G et al (2019) Vascular effects of isometric handgrip training in hypertensives. Clin Exp Hypertens. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2018.1557683

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Millar PJ, Levy AS, McGowan CL et al (2013) Isometric handgrip training lowers blood pressure and increases heart rate complexity in medicated hypertensive patients. Scand J Med Sci Sports 23:620–626. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01435.x

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Millar PJ, McGowan CL, Cornelissen VA et al (2014) Evidence for the role of isometric exercise training in reducing blood pressure: potential mechanisms and future directions. Sports Med 44:345–356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0118-x

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Kumagai H, Zempo-Miyaki A, Yoshikawa T et al (2015) Lifestyle modification increases serum testosterone level and decrease central blood pressure in overweight and obese men. Endocr J 62:423–430. https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ14-0555

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Tanaka S, Sugiura T, Yamashita S et al (2014) Differential response of central blood pressure to isometric and isotonic exercises. Sci Rep 4:5439. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep05439

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Badrov MB, Horton S, Millar PJ et al (2013) Cardiovascular stress reactivity tasks successfully predict the hypotensive response of isometric handgrip training in hypertensives. Psychophysiology 50:407–414. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12031

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Whelton PK, He J, Appel LJ et al (2002) Primary prevention of hypertension: clinical and public health advisory from The National High Blood Pressure Education Program. JAMA 288:1882–1888

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Barton P, Andronis L, Briggs A et al (2011) Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cardiovascular disease prevention in whole populations: modelling study. BMJ 343:d4044. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d4044

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Murray CJ, Lauer JA, Hutubessy RC et al (2003) Effectiveness and costs of interventions to lower systolic blood pressure and cholesterol: a global and regional analysis on reduction of cardiovascular-disease risk. Lancet 361:717–725. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12655-4

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Sibiya MJ, Woodiwiss AJ, Booysen HL et al (2015) Reflected rather than forward wave pressures account for brachial pressure-independent relations between aortic pressure and end-organ changes in an African community. J Hypertens 33:2083–2090. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000682

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Cavalcante JL, Lima JA, Redheuil A et al (2011) Aortic stiffness: current understanding and future directions. J Am Coll Cardiol 57:1511–1522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.12.017

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Krustrup P, Randers MB, Andersen LJ et al (2013) Soccer improves fitness and attenuates cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45:553–560. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182777051

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Wong A, Kwak YS, Scott SD et al (2018) The effects of swimming training on arterial function, muscular strength, and cardiorespiratory capacity in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension. Menopause. https://doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001288

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Figueroa A, Okamoto T, Jaime SJ et al (2019) Impact of high- and low-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in adults across the lifespan: a review. Pflugers Arch 471:467–478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-018-2235-8

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Rengo G, Parisi V, Femminella GD et al (2013) Molecular aspects of the cardioprotective effect of exercise in the elderly. Aging Clin Exp Res 25:487–497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-013-0117-7

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Figueroa A, Hooshmand S, Figueroa M et al (2010) Cardiovagal baroreflex and aortic hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise and post-exercise muscle ischemia in resistance trained men. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20:305–309. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00927.x

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Heffernan KS, Collier SR, Kelly EE et al (2007) Arterial stiffness and baroreflex sensitivity following bouts of aerobic and resistance exercise. Int J Sports Med 28:197–203. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-924290

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Munir S, Jiang B, Guilcher A et al (2008) Exercise reduces arterial pressure augmentation through vasodilation of muscular arteries in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H1645–H1650. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01171.2007

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Taylor AC, McCartney N, Kamath MV et al (2003) Isometric training lowers resting blood pressure and modulates autonomic control. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:251–256. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000048725.15026.B5

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Abbott AL (2009) Medical (nonsurgical) intervention alone is now best for prevention of stroke associated with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis: results of a systematic review and analysis. Stroke 40:e573–e583. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.556068

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    O’Keefe JH, Carter MD, Lavie CJ (2009) Primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a practical evidence-based approach. Mayo Clin Proc 84:741–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-6196(11)60525-9

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Otani K, Haruyama R, Gilmour S (2018) Prevalence and Correlates of Hypertension among Japanese Adults, 1975–2010. Int J Environ Res Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081645

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Mr. Hiroyuki Hatakeyama for technical assistance with the experiments.

Funding

There are no funding sources for the present study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Takanobu Okamoto.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Statement of human and animal rights

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Nippon Sport Science University.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Okamoto, T., Hashimoto, Y. & Kobayashi, R. Isometric handgrip training reduces blood pressure and wave reflections in East Asian, non-medicated, middle-aged and older adults: a randomized control trial. Aging Clin Exp Res 32, 1485–1491 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01330-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Handgrip training
  • Blood pressure
  • Augmentation index
  • Non-pharmacological therapy
  • Cardiovascular disease