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Muscle endocrinology and its relation with nutrition

Abstract

Recent years have demonstrated clear evidence that skeletal muscle is an active endocrine organ. During contraction of muscle fibers, the skeletal muscle produces and releases, into the blood stream, cytokines and other peptides, called myokines, thanks to which it can both communicate with cells locally within the muscle, in an autocrine and paracrine fashion, or with other distant tissues, exerting its endocrine effects. With the progress of sophisticated technologies, the interest towards the skeletal muscle secretome is rapidly grown and the discovery of new myokines represents a prolific field for the identification of new pharmacological approaches for the management and treatment of many clinical diseases. Considering the importance of the muscle proteome and the cross-talk with other organs, the preservation of a skeletal muscle in good health represents a fundamental aspect in life, especially in ageing. Sarcopenia is the age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, bringing to increases of the risk of adverse outcomes, such as physical disability and poor quality of life, as well as alteration of several hormonal networks. For that reasons, the scientific community has risen its interest to find new interventions to prevent and manage the sarcopenia. Adequate nutrition during ages plays a fundamental role in the health and function of the skeletal muscle and it can represents, alone or in combination with physical exercise, a possible preventive measure against sarcopenia. This review will overview the endocrinology of the skeletal muscle, making a focus on food intake as a strategy for preventing skeletal muscle decay.

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Romagnoli, C., Pampaloni, B. & Brandi, M.L. Muscle endocrinology and its relation with nutrition. Aging Clin Exp Res 31, 783–792 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01188-5

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Keywords

  • Skeletal muscle endocrinology
  • Myokine
  • Protein intake
  • Nutrition
  • Sarcopenia