Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 395–405 | Cite as

Complex antioxidants in a randomized single-blinded study of memory in seniors

  • William K. Summers
  • Roy L. Martin
  • Yimeng Liu
  • Bernice Peña
  • Gary M. Marsh
Original Article



Oxidative injury to the brain and aging are theoretical co-causes of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Amyloid plaques and tangles are then secondary phenomenon. The preclinical state would then be ‘normal’ elderly.


A potent complex antioxidant (antiOx) was tested against a popular one-a-day multivitamin (mV) in a randomized single blind design in ‘normal’ senior subjects over 6 months. Memory testing was done at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used to compare the change score of NLT100 and 20WR between two groups over time.


Analysis of the antiOx group (30 subjects) demonstrated significant improvement in declarative memory (change score for NLT100 at month 6 = 6.36 p < 0.0001) and working memory (change score for 20WR at month 6 = 3.23, p < 0.0001). A change-score analysis over 6 months suggests possible neurogenesis in the antiOx group. The mV group (33 subjects) had a change score of the NLT100 and 20WR on the sixth month of 2.20 and 0.32 (p = 0.07, 0.35).


A complex antioxidant blend, sold as an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement, can improve memory in elder subjects. Antioxidants may be beneficial in AD and other neurodegerative diseases.


Antioxidants Memory improvement Aging Alzheimers Pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s 



Alzheimer’s disease


Benign senile forgetfulness


Generalized estimating equation


Mild cognitive impairment


Mini-mental status examination


100 item names-learning paired association test


20 word-recall test





Financial support for this research was obtained from Solo Non-Profit Research, Ltd. Interviews of the subjects were conducted at the offices of Alzheimer’s Corporation, 6000 Uptown Blvd, Suite 308, Albuquerque, NM 87110.

Author contributions

All authors significantly contributed to this work. WKS designed and coordinated the study, performed structured interviews, and drafted the manuscript. RLM coordinated the study and performed structured interviews. BP coordinated the blind randomization of subjects and direct communication with subjects about blinded issues. GMM and YL participated in the design of the study and performed statistical analysis of data. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

GMM, YL, and BP have no conflicts to report. WKS is a stockholder and unpaid officer of Alzheimer’s Corporation. RLM is an employee of Alzheimer’s Corporation.

Ethical approval

The experimental protocol was in compliance with guidelines on human experimentation. The entire study protocol was approved by Ethical and Independent Review Services (Independence, MO 64055).

Informed consent

After explanation of the protocol to a subject, written informed consent was obtained.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alzheimer’s CorporationAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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