Comparison of nurses and general caregivers’ knowledge, attitude, and practice on medication administration process and their distress level in long-term care facilities across Penang, Kuala Lumpur, and Selangor of Malaysia

  • Balamurugan Tangiisuran
  • Sok Cin Tye
  • May Yen Leow
  • Rahmat Awang
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s40520-017-0772-1

Cite this article as:
Tangiisuran, B., Tye, S.C., Leow, M.Y. et al. Aging Clin Exp Res (2017). doi:10.1007/s40520-017-0772-1



Comparing nurses and general caregivers’ knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) on medication administration process in long-term care (LTC) setting and an assessment of their stress, anxiety, and depression (SAD) level.


A cross-sectional survey was conducted among nurses and general caregivers working in LTC using a validated questionnaire. Consisting of demographic characteristics (Section 1); 40 questions on KAP (Section 2); and assessment of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) (Section 3).


155 formally paid staffs in 26 LTC facilities were recruited. Nurses scored significantly higher in the knowledge section compared to caregivers (12.4 ± 1.7 vs. 4.5 ± 3.8; P < 0.001); better attitude (41.5 ± 4.8 vs. 30.8 ± 7.3; P < 0.001); and better practice (65.2 ± 8.5 vs. 40.3 ± 10.9; P < 0.001), respectively. SAD scores reveal that caregivers had significantly higher level of stress, anxiety, and depression compared to the nurses.


General caregivers exhibit poorer knowledge on aspects pertaining to posology, appropriate methods of drug administration, and side effects of common drugs used by the elderly. Compared to nurses, the general caregivers also reported poorer medication administration practices; including not checking labels and expiry dates prior to administration, and not providing basic information about medication therapy to the residents. However, both nurses and general caregivers reported positive attitudes in their role as caregivers. They take pride and satisfaction in their occupation providing support to the elderly.


General caregivers demonstrated lesser knowledge, poorer attitude, and practices towards medication administration processes, in addition to higher SAD score in LTC facilities.


Caregivers Knowledge Attitude Medication administration Nursing homes 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Information, National Poison CentreUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

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