Advertisement

Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 28, Issue 6, pp 1127–1131 | Cite as

Rising incidence of fall-induced maxillofacial injuries among older adults

  • Pekka KannusEmail author
  • Seppo Niemi
  • Jari Parkkari
  • Harri Sievänen
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Various fall-induced injuries in older adults are a major public health problem.

Aim

We aimed to assess the current trends in the fall-induced severe maxillofacial injuries among older adults in Finland, an EU country with a well-defined white population of 5.5 million.

Methods

The injury trends were determined by taking into account all persons 60 years of age or older who were admitted to Finnish hospitals for primary treatment of these injuries between 1999 and 2014.

Results

The number of fall-induced maxillofacial injuries among older Finnish adults doubled during the 16-year follow-up, from 434 in 1999 to 981 in 2014. The age-adjusted incidence of injury (per 100 000 persons) also showed a clear increase from 1999 to 2014: from 47.4 to 71.3 in women, and from 39.2 to 59.6 in men. In both sexes, the increase was most prominent in the oldest age group, persons aged 80 years or older.

Conclusions

The number of fall-induced severe maxillofacial injuries among older Finns rose considerably between 1999 and 2014—with a rate that could not be explained merely by demographic changes. Further studies are urgently needed to better assess the reasons for the rise and possibilities for injury prevention.

Keywords

Face Fall-induced maxillofacial injury Elderly adults Epidemiology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Comparative State Research Funding of the Expert Responsibility Area of Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland (Grant 9S018). The organization had no involvement in the (1) study design; (2) collection, analysis and interpretation of data; (3) writing of the manuscript; and (4) decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Informed concent

As a register-based blinded analysis, the study did not have identifiable individual participants and thus informed consent was not obtained.

Statement of human and animal rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human subjects were in accordance with ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Kannus P, Parkkari J, Koskinen S et al (1999) Fall-induced injuries and deaths among older adults. JAMA 281:1895–1899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kannus P, Sievänen H, Palvanen M et al (2005) Prevention of falls and consequent injuries in elderly people. Lancet 366:1885–1893CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tinetti M, Williams C (1997) Falls, injuries due to falls, and the risk of admission to a nursing home. N Engl J Med 337:1279–1284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chew DJ, Edmonson HD (1996) A study of maxillofacial injuries in the elderly resulting from falls. J Oral Rehabil 23:505–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yamamoto K, Matsusue Y, Murakami K et al (2011) Maxillofacial fractures in older patients. J Oral Maxillofacial Surg 69:2204–2210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Dajani M, Quinonez C, Macpherson AK et al (2015) Epidemiology of maxillofacial injuries in Ontario, Canada. J Oral Maxillofacial Surg 73:349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Toivari M, Helenius M, Suominen AL et al (2014) Etiology of facial fractures in elderly Finns during 2006-2007. Oral Surg 118:539–545Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Velayutham L, Sivanandarajasingham A, O’Meara C et al (2013) Elderly patients with maxillofacial trauma: the effect of an ageing population on a maxillofacial unit’s care. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 51:128–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zelken J, Khalifian S, Mundinger GS et al (2014) Defining predictable patterns of craniomaxillofacial injury in the elderly: analysis of 1,047 patients. J Oral Maxillofacial Surg 72:352–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Korhonen N, Niemi S, Parkkari J et al (2013) Incidence of fall-related traumatic brain injuries among older Finnish adults between 1970 and 2011. JAMA 309:1891–1892CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Korhonen N, Kannus P, Niemi S et al (2014) Rapid increase in fall-induced cervical spine injuries among older Finnish adults between 1970 and 2011. Age Ageing 43:567–571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sund R (2012) Quality of the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register: a systematic review. Scand J Public Health 40:505–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Official Statistics of Finland (2015) Structure of Population and Vital Statistics: Whole Country and Provinces, 1999-2014. Statistics Finland, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Official Statistics of Finland (2014) Population Projections by Municipalities 2015-2030. Statistics Finland, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Korhonen N, Kannus P, Niemi S et al (2013) Fall-induced deaths among older adults: nationwide statistics in Finland between 1971 and 2009 and prediction for the future. Injury 44:867–871CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martinez AY, Como JJ, Vacca M et al (2014) Trends in maxillofacial trauma: a comparison of two cohorts of patients at a single institution 20 years apart. J Oral Maxollofacial Surg 72:750–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stenbacka M, Jansson B, Leifman A et al (2002) Association between use of sedatives or hypnotics, alcohol consumption, or other risk factors and a single injurious fall or multiple injurious falls: a longitudinal general population study. Alcohol 28:9–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Korhonen N, Niemi S, Palvanen M et al (2012) Declining age-adjusted incidence of fall-induced injuries among elderly Finns. Age Ageing 41:75–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Korhonen N, Niemi S, Parkkari J et al (2013) Continuous decline in incidence of hip fracture: nationwide statistics from Finland between 1970 and 2010. Osteoporos Int 24:1599–1603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schonnop R, Yang Y, Feldman F et al (2013) Prevalence of and factors associated with head impact during falls in older adults in long-term care. CMAJ 185:E803–E810CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Panel on prevention of falls in older persons, American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society (2011) Summary of the updated American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society clinical practice guideline for prevention of falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 59:148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ et al (2012) Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12(9):CD007146Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Palvanen M, Kannus P, Piirtola M et al (2014) Effectiveness of the Chaos falls clinic in preventing falls and injuries of home-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial. Injury 45:265–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Uusi-Rasi K, Patil R, Karinkanta S et al (2015) Exercise and vitamin D in fall prevention among older women: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 175:703–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pekka Kannus
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Seppo Niemi
    • 1
  • Jari Parkkari
    • 3
  • Harri Sievänen
    • 1
  1. 1.Injury and Osteoporosis Research CenterUKK Institute for Health Promotion ResearchTampereFinland
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Medical SchoolUniversity of TampereTampereFinland
  3. 3.Tampere Research Center of Sports MedicineUKK Institute for Health Promotion ResearchTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations