Skip to main content

Are andropause symptoms related to depression?

Abstract

Background

Andropause is a middle-age condition in which men experience changes in their physical, spiritual and emotional health. The association between andropause and psychological symptoms such as depression are not very clear yet.

Aims

The objective of this study was therefore to determine the association between the ‘Aging Males Symptoms Scale’ (AMS) and depression.

Methods

A cross sectional study was conducted among 521 old men. To collect data, the AMS and the Patient Health Questionnaires 2 and 9 were used to screen depression, in addition to questions on background and fertility. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between andropause symptoms and depression.

Results

Based on our results and the AMS score, 51.5 % of the study population had clinical symptoms of androgen disorder, 3.7 % of which had severe symptoms. There was a strong correlation between the AMS score and depression. Depression, diabetes, cigarette smoking and spousal age retained their significant associations even after entering the relevant demographic, anthropometric, smoking and disease variables in the multivariable model. As a positive predictive factor, depression had the strongest association with AMS.

Conclusions

Based on our results, there is a direct association between andropause symptoms and depression, where the increasing AMS score corresponds with the severity of depression.

Discussion

Our results show the need of screening for depression when evaluating andropause symptoms.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Seidman SN (2006) Normative hypogonadism and depression: does ‘andropause’ exist? Int J Impot Res 18:415–422

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Morales A, Heaton JP, Carson CC 3rd (2000) Andropause: a misnomer for a true clinical entity. J Urol 163(3):705–712 (review)

  3. Delhez M, Hansenne M, Legros JJ (2003) Andropause and psychopathology: minor symptoms rather than pathological ones. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28(7):863–874

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Huhtaniemi I (2014) Late-onset hypogonadism: current concepts and controversies of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Asian J Androl 16(2):192–202. doi:10.4103/1008-682X.122336 (review)

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Heinemann LA, Saad F, Zimmermann T, Novak A, Myon E, Badia X et al (2003) The Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale: update and compilation of international versions. Health Qual Life Outcomes 1:15–19

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Daig I, Heinemann LA, Kim S, Leungwattanakij S, Badia X, Myon E, Moore C, Saad F, Potthoff P, Thai do M (2003) The Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale: review of its methodological characteristics. Health Qual Life Outcomes 1:77 (review)

  7. Ardebili HE, Khosravi S, Larijani B, Nedjat S, Nasrabadi AN (2014) Psychometric evaluation of the persian version of the ‘aging male scales’ questionnaire. Int J Prev Med 5(9):1178–1185

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Seidman SN, Walsh BT(1999) Testosterone and depression in aging men. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 7(1):18–33 (review)

  9. Romanelli F, Latini M (2005) The laboratory assessment of partial androgen deficiency of the aging male. J Endocrinol Invest 28(11 Suppl Proceedings):39–42

  10. Amore M, Innamorati M, Costi S, Sher L, Girardi P, Pompili M (2012) Partial androgen deficiency, depression, and testosterone supplementation in aging men. Int J Endocrinol 2012:280724

  11. Yoshida NM, Kumano H, Kuboki T (2006) Does the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale assess major depressive disorder?: a pilot study. Maturitas 20:171–175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kobayashi K, Hashimoto K, Kato R, Tanaka T, Hirose T, Masumori N et al (2008) The aging males’ symptoms scale for Japanese men: reliability and applicability of the Japanese version. Int J Impot Res 20(6):544–548

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Seidman SN (2003) Testosterone deficiency and mood in aging men: pathogenic and therapeutic interactions. World J Biol Psychiatry 4(1):14–20

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Delhez M, Hansenne M, Legros JJ (2003) Testosterone and depression in men aged over 50 years. Andropause and psychopathology: minimal systemic work-up) (Article in French). Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 64(2):162–169

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Prieto JM, Atala J, Blanch J, Carreras E, Rovira M, Cirera E et al (2005) Role of depression as a predictor of mortality among cancer patients after stem-cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol 23(25):6063–6071

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Rumsfeld JS, Jones PG, Whooley MA, Sullivan MD, Pitt B, Weintraub WS et al (2005) Depression predicts mortality and hospitalization in patients with myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure. Am Heart J 150(5):961–967

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Dandona P, Rosenberg MT (2010) A practical guide to male hypogonadism in the primary care setting. Int J Clin Pract 64(6):682–696

    PubMed Central  CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Morley JE, Charlton E, Patrick P, Kaiser FE, Cadeau P, McCready D, Perry HM 3rd (2000) Validation of a screening questionnaire for androgen deficiency in aging males. Metabolism 49(9):1239–1242

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB (2001) The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 16(9):606–613

    PubMed Central  CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F, Crengle S, Gunn J, Kerse N, Fishman T, Falloon K et al (2010) Validation of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 to screen for major depression in the primary care population. Ann Fam Med 8(4):348–353

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. New Zealand Guidelines Group (2008) Identification of common mental disorders and management of depression in primary care. An evidence-based best practice guideline. Published by New Zealand Guidelines Group; Wellington. http://www.moh.govt.nz

  22. Chen S, Fang Y, Chiu H, Fan H, Jin T, Conwell Y (2013) Validation of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire to screen for major depression in a Chinese primary care population. Asia Pac Psychiatry 5(2):61–68

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Khamseh ME, Baradaran HR, Javanbakht A, Mirghorbani M, Yadollahi Z, Malek M (2011) Comparison of the CES-D and PHQ-9 depression scales in people with type 2 diabetes in Tehran, Iran. BMC Psychiatry 16:61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kelishadi R, Rabiee K, Khosravi A, Famouri F, Sadeghi M, Roohafza H et al (2001) Assesment physical activity in adolescente of Isfahan. Shahrekord Univ Med Sci J 13:55–66

    Google Scholar 

  25. Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, Hinkle JL, Cheever KH (2010) Brunner & Suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing, Twelfth edn. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  26. American Diabetes Association (2014) Standards of medical care in diabetes—2014. Diabetes care 37(Suppl 1):S14–S80. doi:10.2337/dc14-S014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Parazzini F, Chiaffarino F, Ricci E (2006) The aging males’ symptoms in the Italian population: results from a cross sectional study using the AMS scale. Arch Ital Urol Androl 78(3):87–91

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Ichioka K, Nishiyama HI, Yoshimura K, Itoh N, Okubo K, Terai A (2006) Aging Males’ symptoms scale in Japanese men attending a multiphasic health screening clinic. Urology 67(3):589–593

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Almeida OP, Yeap BB, Hankey GJ, Golledge J, Flicker L (2015) Association of depression with sexual and daily activities: a community study of octogenarian men. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 23(3):234–242

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Ahmadvand A, Sepehrmanesh Z, Ghoreishi FS, Afshinmajd S (2012) Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the general population of Kashan, Iran. Arch Iran Med 15(4):205–209

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Oh DH, Kim SA, Lee HY, Seo JY, Choi BY, Nam JH (2009) Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in korean adults: results of a 2009 korean community health survey. J Korean Med Sci 28(1):128–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Sato Y, Tanda H, Oishi S, Nakajima H, Nanbu A, Nitta T et al (2007) Prevalence of major depressive disorder in self-referred patients in a late onset hypogonadism clinic. Int J Impot Res 19(4):407–410

  33. Samizadeh E, Khosravi S, Samizadeh A, Dabiran S (2014) Andropause: results of a comprehensive surveillance of prevalence and risk factors on. Int J Adv Biol Biomed Res 2(2):535–544

  34. Alschuler KN, Jensen MP, Sullivan-Singh SJ et al (2013) The association of age, pain, and fatigue with physical functioning and depressive symptoms in persons with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 36(5):483–491

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Kurita N, Horie S, Yamazaki S, Otoshi K, Otani K, Sekiguchi M et al (2014) Low testosterone levels, depressive symptoms, and falls in older men: a cross-sectional study. J Am Med Dir Assoc 15(1):30–35

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. T’Sjoen G, Goemaere S, De Meyere M, Kaufman JM (2004) Perception of males’ aging symptoms, health and well-being in elderly community-dwelling men is not related to circulating androgen levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29(2):201–214

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This article is part of a PhD thesis supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The latter university’s ‘Department of Community Medicine’ and ‘Faculty of Medicine and Midwifery’ of ‘Tehran School of Nursing and Midwifery’ provided the practical support for this project. We would like to extend our gratitude to the research team members, our colleagues at the Blood Transfusion Organization, and the men who participated in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Human and Animal Rights

The Ethical Committee Board of Tehran University of Medical Sciences approved the project under code no 14786.

Informed consent

Participation in this study was on a voluntary basis and the participants were assured that their information would remain confidential and that the results would be reported generally. Moreover, they were granted a token of appreciation for participating in the study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shahla Khosravi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Khosravi, S., Ardebili, H.E., Larijani, B. et al. Are andropause symptoms related to depression?. Aging Clin Exp Res 27, 813–820 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-015-0341-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-015-0341-4

Keywords

  • Andropause
  • Men’s health
  • Depression
  • Aging