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The clinical perfectionism questionnaire: psychometric properties of the Italian version in patients with eating disorders

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Problematic perfectionism has been traditionally conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, and specific instruments have been developed to capture its various dimensions. However, the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ) was recently designed to measure a unidimensional construct called "clinical perfectionism", but the questionnaire has not yet been validated in Italian.


This study aimed to propose the Italian version of the CPQ and examine its psychometric properties.


The CPQ was translated into Italian using translation and back-translation procedures. Then, it was administered to 188 Italian-speaking patients with eating disorders and 126 non-eating disorder group (excluded if the Italian version of the Eating Attitudes Test-26 was ≥ 20). The clinical group also completed the Italian versions of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI).


Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for the bifactor structure of the 10-item version. Internal consistency was high for the general clinical perfectionism factor, and test–retest reliability was good. Convergent validity was acceptable for the general clinical perfectionism and 'overvaluation of striving' group factors. The CPQ showed significantly higher scores in patients with eating disorders than in the non-eating disorder group.


Overall, the study demonstrated the good psychometric properties of the Italian version of the CPQ, and validated its use in Italian-speaking patients with eating disorders. Although further research is required, the CPQ has promising evidence as a reliable and valid measure of clinical perfectionism in its Italian version.

Level of evidence

Level V, Descriptive study.

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Availability of data and materials

The data sets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Authors and Affiliations



RDG and SC contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by SC, CM, LD and AG. The first draft of the manuscript was written by SC and RDG. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Simona Calugi.

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On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Verona and Rovigo (Project identification code 9920). The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments, or comparable ethical standards.

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All participants provided informed written consent for the anonymous use of their data for research purposes. For minors (< 18 years), additional informed consent was provided by the parents.

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Calugi, S., Dametti, L., Dalle Grave, A. et al. The clinical perfectionism questionnaire: psychometric properties of the Italian version in patients with eating disorders. Eat Weight Disord 27, 3439–3448 (2022).

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