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Impact of obesity on central processing time rather than overall reaction time in young adult men

  • Mohammad NarimaniEmail author
  • Samad Esmaeilzadeh
  • Arto J. Pesola
  • Liane B. Azevedo
  • Akbar Moradi
  • Behrouz Heidari
  • Malahat Kashfi-Moghadam
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Males and Eating and Weight disorders

Abstract

Background and purpose

The association between weight status with simple cognitive tasks such as reaction time (RT) may not be observed in young people as cognitive functioning development has reached its peak. In the present study, we aimed to examine the association between overall and central adiposity with overall and central processing of RT in a sample of young adult men with different weight status from Ardabil, Iran.

Methods

Eighty-six young males between June-July 2018 completed RT tests as well as premotor time (PMT) using surface electromyography changes in isometric contraction response to an audio stimulus.

Results

No significant associations were observed between RT and PMT and different body mass index categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese), as well as fat mass and fat to skeletal muscle mass ratio quartiles (Q). However, participants with greater waist to height ratio (WHtR) had longer PMT (but not RT) than their peers with lower WHtR (Q3 than Q2 and Q1 groups; p < 0.05, d = 1.23). Participants in the skeletal muscle mass quartile Q2 tended to have longer RT than participants in Q3 in an adjusted comparison model (p = 0.05, d = 0.72).

Conclusions

Although the association between weight status and RT might be elusive in young adults, our results show that higher central adiposity is negatively associated with PMT in young adults. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore the changes in obesity indexes and process speed in longer terms.

Level of evidence

Level I, experimental study.

Keywords

Central obesity Muscle mass Premotor time Reaction time Underweight Young adult males 

Abbreviations

BDI-II

BECK depression inventory-II

BIA

Bio-electrical impedance analysis

BMI

Body mass index

CANTAB

Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery

EMG

Electromyography

EMG RT

Electromyographic analysis of RT

5-CRT

Five-choice RT

KMO

Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin

IPAQ

Long form international physical activity questionnaire

Onset3

Mean RT in initiation of 3 s contractions

Offset3

Mean RT in termination of 3 s contractions

Onset6

Mean RT in initiation of 6 s contractions

Offset6

Mean RT in termination of 6 s contractions

MT

Motor time

MANCOVA

Multivariate analysis of covariance

PMT

Premotor time

RT

Reaction time

SRT

Simple RT

SMM

Skeletal muscle mass

SES

Socioeconomic status

2-CRT

Two-choice RT

WHtR

Waist to height ratio

Notes

Funding

No funding was received for performing the present study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the Human Ethics Committee of University of Mohaghegh Ardabili and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Narimani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samad Esmaeilzadeh
    • 2
  • Arto J. Pesola
    • 3
  • Liane B. Azevedo
    • 4
  • Akbar Moradi
    • 5
  • Behrouz Heidari
    • 2
  • Malahat Kashfi-Moghadam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  2. 2.University of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  3. 3.Active Life LabSouth-Eastern Finland University of Applied SciencesMikkeliFinland
  4. 4.School of Health and Social CareTeesside UniversityMiddlesbroughUK
  5. 5.Islamic Azad University Science and Research BranchTehranIran

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