Advertisement

Psychometric evaluation of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale in a Mexican male sample

  • María del Consuelo Escoto Ponce de León
  • Lilián Elizabeth Bosques-Brugada
  • Esteban Jaime Camacho Ruiz
  • Georgina Alvarez-Rayón
  • Karina Franco Paredes
  • Gabriela Rodríguez Hernández
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (MASS) shows acceptable psychometric properties in Mexican bodybuilders.

Methods

A total of 258 Mexican male bodybuilders were recruited. Two self-report questionnaires, including the MASS and drive for muscularity scale (DMS), were administered. Six models of the latent structure of the MASS were evaluated, using confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood, considering robust Satorra–Bentler correction to estimate the fit of the models to the data.

Results

Similar to the original MASS, the series of CFA confirmed that the Mexican version was well represented with the 17-item five-factor structure, which showed a good model fit [Satorra–Bentler Chi-square (109, n = 258) = 189.18, p < 0.0001; NNFI = 0.91; CFI = 0.93; IFI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.05 (0.04, 0.07)]. Internal consistency was estimated with McDonald’s omega, which was acceptable for the MASS (0.88), and their subscales (0.80 to 0.89), except for muscle checking scale (0.77). Test–retest reliability analysis showed stability of the MASS total as well as of the subscale scores over a 2-week period (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.75–0.91). Construct validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between MASS and DMS results (r = 0.75; p = 0.0001). These results were similar to those of previous studies, which demonstrate the scale’s usefulness.

Conclusions

Our results support the suitability of the MASS and its subscales to measure muscle dysmorphia symptoms in Mexican male bodybuilders.

Keywords

Body image Confirmatory factor analysis Male Muscle dysmorphia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by the Grants UAEM (3388/2013ESP and 1002/2012/RCA) to Consuelo Escoto and UNAM-PAPIIT (IN-306615) to Georgina Alvarez-Rayón.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association, DSM-5 Task Force 2013 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association, Arlington. doi: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Olivardia R (2001) Mirror, mirror on the wall, who’s the largest of them all? The features and phenomenology of muscle dysmorphia. Harv Rev Psychiatry 9(5):245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McCreary DR, Sasse DK (2000) An exploration of the drive for muscularity in adolescent boys and girls. J Am Coll Health 48(6):297–304. doi: 10.1080/07448480009596271 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maida D, Armstrong S (2005) The classification of muscle dysmorphia. Int J Men’s Health 4(1):73–91. doi: 10.3149/jmh.0401.73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    González-Martí I, Fernández JG, Contreras OR, Mayville SB (2012) Validation of a Spanish version of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale: escala de satisfacción muscular. Body Image 9(4):517–523. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.05.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grieve FG (2007) A conceptual model of factors contributing to the development of muscle dysmorphia. Eat Disord 15(1):63–80. doi: 10.1080/10640260601044535 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pope HG, Gruber AJ, Choi P, Olivardia R, Phillips KA (1997) Muscle dysmorphia. An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics 38(6):548–557. doi: 10.1016/S0033-3182(97)71400-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cafri G, Thompson JK (2007) Measurement of the muscular ideal. In: Thompson JK, Cafri G (eds) Muscular ideal: psychological, social, and medical perspectives. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tylka TL, Bergeron D, Schwartz JP (2005) Development and psychometric evaluation of the male body attitudes scale (MBAS). Body Image 2(2):161–175. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim2005.03.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hildebrandt T, Langenbucher J, Schlundt DG (2004) Muscularity concerns among men: development of attitudinal and perceptual measures. Body Image 1(2):169–181. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.01.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rhea DJ, Lantz CD, Cornelius AE (2004) Development of the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). J Sports Med Phys Fit 44(4):428–435Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mayville SB, Williamson DA, White MA, Netemeyer RG, Drab DL (2002) Development of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale: a self-report measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia symptoms. Assessment 9(4):351–360. doi: 10.1177/1073191102238156 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Babusa B, Czeglédi E, Túry F, Mayville SB, Urbán R (2015) Differentiating the levels of risk for muscle dysmorphia among Hungarian male weightlifters: a factor mixture modeling approach. Body Image 12:14–21. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.09.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schmitz JF, Campagnolo P (2013) Características de dismorfia muscular em praticantes de musculação: associação com o consumo alimentar. Braz J Sports Nutr 2(2):1–8Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Giardino JC, Procidano ME (2012) Muscle dysmorphia symptomatology: a cross-cultural study in Mexico and the United States. Int J Mens Health 10(1):1–10. doi: 10.3149/jmh.1101.83 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martínez A, Rizo MM, Sánchez M, Reig M, Cortés E (2014) Relación entre variables antropométricas y dismorfia muscular en gimnastas de la provincia de Alicante. Nutr Hosp 30(5):1125–1129. doi: 10.3305/nh.2014.30.5.7777 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sardinha A, de Oliveira AJ, Soares CG (2008) Dismorfia muscular: análise comparativa entre um critério antropométrico e um instrumento psicológico. Rev Bras Med Esporte 14(4):387–392. doi: 10.1590/S1517-86922008000400013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tod D, Edwards C (2015) Relationships among muscle dysmorphia characteristics, body image quality of life, and coping in males. J Sci Med Sport 18(5):585–589. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thomas A, Tod DA, Edwards CJ, McGuigan MR (2014) Drive for muscularity and social physique anxiety mediate the perceived ideal physique muscle dysmorphia relationship. J Strength Cond Res 28(12):3508–3514. doi: 10.1519/JSC0000000000000573 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ryan T, Morrison T (2010) Psychometric properties of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale among Irish and British men. Body Image 7(3):246–250. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim2010.02.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jin X, Jin Y, Zhou S, Li X, Yang S, Yang D, Nieuwoudt JE, Yao J (2015) The muscle appearance satisfaction scale: a factorial analysis of validity and reliability for its use on adult Chinese male weightlifters. Body Image 14(3):94–101. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.04.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Almeida SH, Aguiar M, Almeida JH (2008) Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS). EFDeportes.com 13(120):1–8Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Babusa B, Urbán R, Czeglédi E, Túry F (2012) Psychometric properties and construct validity of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale among Hungarian men. Body Image 9(1):155–162. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.08.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    López C, Vázquez R, Ruíz AO, Mancilla JM (2013) Propiedades psicométricas del instrumento Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS) en hombres mexicanos. Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios 4(2):79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Escoto C, Alvarez-Rayón G, Mancilla-Díaz JM, Camacho EJ, Franco K, Juárez CS (2013) Psychometric properties of the drive for muscularity scale in Mexican males. Eat Weight Disord 18(1):29–35. doi: 10.1007/s40519-013-0010-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bentler PM (2004) EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Multivariate Software, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Satorra A, Bentler PM (1994) Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In: von Eye A, Clogg CC (eds) Latent variables analysis: applications for developmental research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 399–419Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2007) Using multivariate statistics, 5th edn. Allyn and Bacon, Boston.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shumacker RE, Lomax RG (1996) A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Erlbaum, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hu L, Bentler PM (1999) Cut-off criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus alternatives. Struct Equ Model 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Finch JF, West SG (1997) The investigation of personality structure: statistical model. J Res Pers 31:439–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McDonald RP (1999) Test theory. A unified treatment. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kline P (1999) The handbook of psychological testing, 2nd edn. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nieuwoudt JE, Zhou S, Coutts R, Booker R, Yoxall J, Booker S (2015) Evaluating the reliability and validity of the proposed muscle dysmorphia criteria. J Sport Exerc Psychol. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2015.1016088 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Robert CA, Munroe-Chandler KJ, Gammage KL (2009) The relationship between the drive for muscularity and muscle dysmorphia in male and female weight trainers. J Strength Cond Res 23(6):1656–1662CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hallsworth L, Wade T, Tiggemann M (2005) Individual differences in male body-image: an examination of self-objectification in recreational body builders. Br J Health Psychol 10(3):453–465. doi: 10.1348/135910705X26966 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pickett TC, Lewis RJ, Cash TF (2005) Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls. Br J Sports Med 39(4):217–222. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.012013 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Murray SB, Rieger E, Hildebrandt T, Karlov L, Russell J, Boon E, Dawson RT, Touyz SW (2012) A comparison of eating, exercise, shape, and weight related symptomatology in males with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa. Body Image 9(2):193–200. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.01.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    MacKenzie SB, Podsakoff PM, Jarvis CB (2005) The problem of measurement model misspecification in behavioral and organizational reseach and some recommended solutions. J Appl Psychol 90(4):710–730. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.710 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • María del Consuelo Escoto Ponce de León
    • 1
  • Lilián Elizabeth Bosques-Brugada
    • 1
  • Esteban Jaime Camacho Ruiz
    • 2
  • Georgina Alvarez-Rayón
    • 3
  • Karina Franco Paredes
    • 4
  • Gabriela Rodríguez Hernández
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCentro Universitario UAEM Ecatepec, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoEcatepecMexico
  2. 2.Department of Health EducationUnidad Académica Profesional Nezahualcóyotl, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoNezahualcóyotlMexico
  3. 3.Eating Disorders Laboratory, Facultad de Estudios Superiores IztacalaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoTlalnepantlaMexico
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyCentro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de GuadalajaraCiudad GuzmánMexico

Personalised recommendations