The Polish version of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire: an exploratory structural equation modeling approach
- 150 Downloads
The objective of the study was to validate a Polish version of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ). The study included 115 participants with no diagnosis (control group) (Mage = 20.53, SD = 1.80) on which we have based factor analyses, 48 participants diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (Mage = 18.69, SD = 3.52) and 39 participants diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (Mage = 22.28, SD = 3.80). In the current study, we have run confirmatory factor analysis; however, the analysis did not fit the data (CFI = 0.81, RMSEA = 0.09). Three-factor solution (number of factors were chosen basing on parallel analysis and MAP) was assessed using exploratory structural equation modeling approach (extraction: Maximum Likelihood; rotation: Geomin) which appeared to fit the data well (CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.07). Validation with the clinical sample was performed using multi-group ESEM. Since the models achieved only configural level of invariance, we have examined the structure of clinical group with next ESEM model (CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.05). To evaluate internal consistency, we have employed Omega (ω) and Cronbach’s α with bootstrapped 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). The first factor (food and weight preoccupation) was 0.79 (95 % CI = 0.74–0.83), for second factor (social activities) was 0.86 (95 % CI = 0.81–0.90), and for third factor (clothing) was 0.84 (95 % CI = 0.79–0.87). Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Body Attitude Test scores. The results have shown that the Polish version of the BIAQ fulfilled basic psychometric criteria and may be used for evaluation of body image avoidance behaviors among Polish women.
KeywordsBody image disturbance Avoidance behavior Validation Women
Compliance with ethics standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
The research was approved by the Bioethics Commission at the University of Medical Sciences in Poznan (Poland). All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.Cash TF (2012) Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance, 1st edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- 2.Reel JJ (2013) Body avoidance. In: Reel JJ (ed) Eating disorders. An encyclopedia of causes, treatment and, prevention. ABC-CLIO, California, pp 59–60Google Scholar
- 3.Thompson JK, van der Berg P (2002) Measuring body image attitudes among adolescents and adults. In: Cash TF, Pruzinsky T (eds) Body image: a handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice. Guilford Press, New York, pp 142–153Google Scholar
- 18.American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. Author, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- 19.World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. WHO Technical report Series 894. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 22.Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Polivy J (1983) Development and validation of a multidimensional Eating Disorder Inventory for anorexia and bulimia. Int J Eat Disord 2:15–34. doi: 10.1002/1098-108X(198321)2:2<15:AID-EAT2260020203>3.0.CO;2-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Żechowski C (2008) Polish version of Eating Disorder Inventory—adaptation and normalization. Polish Psychiatry 42(2):179–193Google Scholar
- 24.Muthén LK, Muthén BO (2012) Mplus user’s guide, 7th edn. Muthén & Muthén, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar