Psychometric properties of the Italian Yale Food Addiction Scale in overweight and obese patients

  • Marco InnamoratiEmail author
  • Claudio Imperatori
  • Gian Mauro Manzoni
  • Dorian A. Lamis
  • Gianluca Castelnuovo
  • Antonino Tamburello
  • Stella Tamburello
  • Mariantonietta Fabbricatore
Original Article



To assess the dimensionality and psychometric properties of an Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) in a sample of obese/overweight patients attending low-energy diet therapy.


Participants were 300 overweight and obese patients who were admitted to a private medical center in Rome, Italy. Controls were 300 (231 women and 69 men) adults from the general population. All of the participants were administered the YFAS and the binge eating scale (BES).


The one-factor model of the YFAS reported in previous studies did not fit the data [\( \chi^{ 2}_{ 20 9} \) = 466.69, p < 0.001, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07; 90 % CI: 0.06/0.08; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.91; weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) = 1.40]. Through item analysis, it was suggested that five items (items #10, #11, #22, #24, and #25) with low item–total correlations should be removed from the measure. A 16-item one-factor model revealed a better fit to the data (\( \chi^{ 2}_{ 10 4} \) = 174.56; p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.05; 90 % CI: 0.04/0.07; CFI = 0.96), although the WRMR was slightly higher than that suggested as an indicator of good fit (WRMR = 1.01). The YFAS-16 had satisfactory internal consistency; it was able to discriminate obese patients from controls and strongly correlated with BES scores.


The YFAS-16 assesses all of the “symptoms” represented in the original version and has satisfactory psychometric properties, although the percentage of food addiction diagnoses according to the YFAS-16 is lower than the percentage of diagnoses according to the original version of the questionnaire.


Yale Food Addiction Scale Obesity Overweight Structural equation modeling 



This study was supported by the SISDCA study group on Food Addiction (Melchionda Nazario, Ballardini Donatella, Castelnuovo Gianluca, Ceccarini Martina, Donini Lorenzo Maria, Gravina Giovanni, Luxardi Gian Luigi, Manzato Lia, Manzoni Gian Mauro, Molinari Enrico, Poggiogalle Eleonora, Schumann Romana). This study was not funded by any grants.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Innamorati
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Claudio Imperatori
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gian Mauro Manzoni
    • 3
    • 4
  • Dorian A. Lamis
    • 5
  • Gianluca Castelnuovo
    • 4
    • 6
    • 7
  • Antonino Tamburello
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stella Tamburello
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mariantonietta Fabbricatore
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Università Europea di RomaRomeItaly
  2. 2.Istituto SkinnerRomeItaly
  3. 3.Faculty of PsychologyeCampus UniversityNovedrate, ComoItaly
  4. 4.SISDCA, Italian Society for the Study of Eating DisordersRomeItaly
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesEmory University School of Medicine AtlantaAtlantaUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyCatholic University of MilanMilanItaly
  7. 7.Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Psychology Research LaboratoryVerbaniaItaly

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