International Energy Agency (IEA). Energy efficiency market report 2015, market trends and medium-term prospects. https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/energy-efficiency-market-report-2015-.html.
International Energy Agency (IEA). World energy outlook 2015. Paris: International Energy Agency; 2015. This is an in-depth analysis that looks at potential savings from energy efficiency policies and additional cost-effective energy efficiency measures in countries accounting for nearly half of global energy demand.
Energy Information Administration. International Energy Statistics. https://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=44&aid=2. This percentage is for 2012, the last year for which data are available.
Nadel S, Elliott N and Langer T. Energy efficiency in the United States: 35 years and counting. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC. 2015. http://aceee.org/research-report/e1502. Examines many energy efficiency trends in the USA from 1980 to 2014.
Schlomann B and Eichhammer W. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Germany. Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany. 2012 http://www.isi.fraunhofer.de/isi-wAssets/docs/x/de/publikationen/National-Report_Germany_November-2012.pdf.
National Bureau of Statistics. “Statistical Communique” (in Chinese). Beijing. 2016 http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201602/t20160229_1323991.html.
European Commission. “Commission staff working document and impact assessment accompanying the document, communication from the commission to the European Parliament and the Council, Energy Efficiency and its Contribution to Energy Security and the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policy.” Brussels. 2014 https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/2014_eec_ia_adopted_part1_0.pdf.
Braungardt S, Eichhammer W, Elsland R, Fleiter T, Klobasa M, Krail M, Pfluger B, Reuter M, Schlomann B, Sensfuss F, Tariq S, Kranzl L, Dovidio S, and Gentili P. 2014 (revised). Study evaluating the current energy efficiency policy framework in the EU and providing orientation on policy options for realizing the cost-effective energy-efficiency/saving potential until 2020 and beyond. Karlsruhe, Vienna and Rome. Franhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI and Technische Universitat Wien and Price Waterhouse Cooper PwC. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/2014_report_2020-2030_eu_policy_framework.pdf. A comprehensive bottom-up analysis estimating a high level of available energy efficiency savings in the EU.
Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN). Pathways to deep decarbonization, 2015 Report. http://deepdecarbonization.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/DDPP_2015_REPORT.pdf. Summary of studies looking at energy efficiency and decarbonization potential in 15 of the world’s major economies on all inhabited continents.
Kinuma M, et al. Pathways to deep decarbonization in Japan. 2015. Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN). http://deepdecarbonization.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/DDPP_JPN.pdf.
Lovins A, Rocky Mountain Institute. Reinventing fire: bold business solutions for the new energy era. White River Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing; 2011.
Laitner J, Nadel S, Elliott RN, Sachs H, and Khan S. The long-term energy efficiency potential: what the evidence suggests. 2012. Washington, DC: ACEEE. http://aceee.org/research-report/e121.
Neubauer M. Cracking the TEAPOT: economic and achievable energy efficiency potential studies. 2014. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC. http://aceee.org/research-report/u1407. Summarizes more than 40 efficiency potential studies on the USA, good discussion of the influence of key assumptions in estimating energy efficiency potential.
Electric Power Research Institute. 2014. U.S. energy efficiency potential through 2035. Palo Alto, CA, EPRI. http://www.epri.com/abstracts/Pages/ProductAbstract.aspx?ProductId=000000000001025477.
Sugiyama M, Akashi O, Wada K, Kanudia A, Li J, Weyant J. Energy efficiency potentials for global climate change mitigation. Clim Chang. 2014;123(3):397–411.
Sreedharan P. Recent estimates of energy efficiency potential in the USA. Energy Effic. 2013;6(3):433–45.
Yu W, Brown M. Policy drivers for improving electricity end-use efficiency in the U.S.: an economic-engineering analysis. Energy Effic. 2014;7:517–46.
These data come from the 15 individual country studies, available at: http://deepdecarbonization.org/countries/.
Allcott, Hunt, and Michael Greenstone. 2012. “Is there an energy efficiency gap?” http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1987250.
Nadel S and Langer T. 2012. “Comments on the July 2012 revision of ‘is there an energy efficiency gap?’” American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC. http://aceee.org/white-paper/comments-on-revision-efficiency-gap.
Baatz B and Gilleo A. Big savers: experiences and recent history of program administrators achieving high levels of energy savings. 2016. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC. http://aceee.org/research-report/u1601.
California State and Consumer Services Agency. The summer 2001 conservation report. Prepared by the California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA. http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/CEC-400-2002-001/CEC-100-2002-001.PDF.
Nadel S. The takeback effect: fact or fiction? 1993. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC. http://www.aceee.org/research-report/u933.
Greening L, Greene D, Difiglio C. Energy efficiency and consumption—the rebound effect—a survey. Energy Policy. 2000;28:389–401.
Sorrell S, Dimitropoulos J, Somerville M. Empirical estimates of the direct rebound effect: a review. Energy Policy. 2009;37:1356–71.
Economic Consulting Associates. 2014. Phase 1 final report: the rebound effect for developing countries. http://www.evidenceondemand.info/phase-1-final-report-the-rebound-effect-for-developing-countries.Examines the results of many different studies on rebound effects in both high- and low/middle-income countries.
Gillingham, Kenneth, David Rapson, and Gernot Wagner. “The rebound effect and energy efficiency policy.” Review of environmental economics and policy 10(1):68-88. http://reep.oxfordjournals.org/content/10/1/68.full. Reviews many different studies on the rebound effect—particularly strong on indirect effects, both micro- and macroeconomic.
Nadel S. “The rebound effect: large or small? 2012. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC. http://aceee.org/white-paper/rebound-effect-large-or-small.
Hughes J, Knittel C, Sperling D. Evidence of a shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand. Energy J. 2008;29(1):93–114.
Small K and Van Dender K. “Fuel efficiency and motor vehicle travel: the declining rebound effect.” 2007. Irine, CA, University of California. http://www.economics.uci.edu/files/docs/workingpapers/2005-06/Small-03.pdf. A slightly earlier version was published in Energy Journal (28)1: 25–51.
Small K and Hymel Kent. “The rebound effect from fuel efficiency standards: measurement and projection to 2035.” Prepared for U.S. EPA, Washington, DC. 2011. https://www3.epa.gov/otaq/climate/documents/mte/420r15012.pdf.
Davis L. Durable goods and residential demand for energy and water: evidence from a field trial. RAND J Econ. 2008;39(2):530–46.
Davis L, Fuchs A, Gertler P. Cash for coolers: evaluating a large-scale appliance replacement program in Mexico. Am Econ J Econ Pol. 2015;6(4):207–38. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2014/12/05/000442464_20141205134555/Rendered/PDF/929360JRN0240A00Box385297B00PUBLIC0.pdf.
Thomas B and Azevedo I. “Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for U.S. households with input-output analysis. Ecological Economics 86(2013): 1188-210. https://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/ilimade/Ines_Azevedo/papers/thomas_2013a.pdf and http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~ilimade/Ines_Azevedo/papers/thomas_2013b.pdf.
Barker T, Ekins P, Foxon T. The macro-economic rebound effect and the UK economy. Energy Policy. 2007;35(10):4935–46.
Barker T, Dagoumas A, Rubin J. The macroeconomic rebound effect and the World Economy. Energy Effic. 2009;2(4):411–27.
International Risk Governance Council. The rebound effect: implications of consumer behavior for robust energy policies. 2013. https://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/ilimade/Ines_Azevedo/papers/IRGC_ReboundEffect-FINAL.pdf.
Luke, Max, Amy Meyer, Harry Saunders, Ted Nordhaus, Michael Shellenberger and Alex Trembath. 2014. Lighting, electricity, steel: energy efficiency backfire in emerging economies. Oakland, CA, Breakthrough Institute. http://thebreakthrough.org/images/pdfs/Lighting_Electricity_Steel.pdf.
Cullenward D, Koomey J. A critique of Saunders’ ‘historical evidence for energy efficiency rebound in 30 US sectors’. Technol Forecast Soc Chang. 2016;103:203–13.