Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 280–316 | Cite as

A Review on Direct Metal Laser Sintering: Process Features and Microstructure Modeling

  • Jyotirmoy Nandy
  • Hrushikesh Sarangi
  • Seshadev SahooEmail author


Additive manufacturing (AM) has gained market interest in recent times, due to improvement in technologies and introduction of new metal powders for the end product with the application on different fields such as aerospace, medical and automotive sectors. Laser-based additive manufacturing is presently regarded as the most versatile process in additive manufacturing. This manufacturing technology produces three-dimensional complex shapes from the powder material in a layer by layer fashion directly from the metal powder. The process has the potential to be more flexible, to produce a wider range of shapes, and to form more challenging materials. As it is a rapid manufacturing technique, in which complex non-equilibrium physical and chemical metallurgical phenomena takes place. These phenomena will directly affect the qualities of build parts, which are dependent on the microstructure as well as process parameters. Thus, to understand the processing mechanism and the prediction of part microstructures during the process may be an important factor for process optimization. At the present time, an increase in computational resources allows for direct simulations of microstructures during materials processing for specific manufacturing conditions. So, there is a demand to develop an integrated computational platform coupling various phenomena or models together to understand and ultimately control and optimize the AM build process. The objective of this review is to present a thorough analysis of direct metal laser sintering process, process parameters, sintering mechanism, and comprehensive discussion on the phase field method for microstructure evolution and its application. This review aims at providing an insight into the mechanism of the processes and microstructure evolution both experimentally and numerically. It will act as a guide for researchers working on additive manufacturing and would also provide the future research gap for further studies.


Additive manufacturing Modeling and simulation Laser process Phase-field method, microstructure modeling 



  1. 1.
    Frazier, W.E.: Metal additive manufacturing: a review. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 23(6), 1917–1928 (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gu DD, Meiners W, Wissenbach K, Poprawe R (2012) Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes, and mechanisms. Int Mater Rev57:133–164Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Conner, B.P., Manogharan, G.P., Martof, A.N., Rodomsky, L.M., Rodomsky, C.M., Jordan, D.C., Limperos, J.W.: Making sense of 3-D printing : creating a map of additive manufacturing products and services. Addit Manuf. 1, 64–76 (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sames, W.J., List, F.A., Pannala, S., Dehoff, R.R., Babu, S.S.: The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing. Int. Mater. Rev. 61(5), 315–360 (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lewandowski, J.J., Seifi, M.: Metal additive manufacturing: a review of mechanical properties. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 46(1), 151–186 (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Levy, G.N., Schindel, R., Kruth, J.P.: Rapid manufacturing and rapid tooling with layer manufacturing (LM) technologies, state of the art and future perspectives. CIRP Annals-ManufTechnol. 52(2), 589–609 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Williams, C.B., Mistree, F., Rosen, D.W.: A functional classification framework for the conceptual design of additive manufacturing technologies. J. Mech. Des. 133(12), 121002–121013 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wendel, B., Rietzel, D., Kühnlein, F., Feulner, R., Hülder, G., Schmachtenberg, E.: Additive processing of polymers. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 293(10), 799–809 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sood, A.K., Ohdar, R.K., Mahapatra, S.S.: Parametric appraisal of mechanical property of fused deposition modeling processed parts. Mater. Des. 31(1), 287–295 (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raffray, A.R., Jones, R., Aiello, G., Billone, M., Giancarli, L., Golfier, H., Hasegawa, A., Katoh, Y., Kohyama, A., Nishio, S., Riccardi, B.: Design and material issues for high performance SiC f/SiC-based fusion power cores. Fusion Eng Des. 55(1), 55–95 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zardetto, S., Dalla, R.M.: Study of the effect of lamination process on pasta by physical chemical determination and near infrared spectroscopy analysis. J. Food Eng. 74(3), 402–409 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wilson, J.M., Piya, C., Shin, Y.C., Zhao, F., Ramani, K.: Remanufacturing of turbine blades by laser direct deposition with its energy and environmental impact analysis. J. Clean. Prod. 80, 170–178 (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kruth, J.P., Leu, M.C., Nakagawa, T.: Progress in additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping. CIRP Ann ManufTechnol. 47(2), 525–540 (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tapia, G., Elwany, A.: A review on process monitoring and control in metal-based additive manufacturing. J ManufSciEng. 136, 060801–060810 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schmidt, M., Merklein, M., Bourell, D., Dimitrov, D., Hausotte, T., Wegener, K., Overmeyer, L., Vollertsen, F., Levy, G.N.: Laser based additive manufacturing in industry and academia. CIRP Annals – ManufTechnol. 66(2), 561–583 (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Das, S., Beama, J.J., Wohlert, M., Bourell, D.L.: Direct laser freeform fabrication of high performance metal components. Rapid Prototyp. J. 4(3), 112–117 (1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Olakanmi, E.O.: Selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM) of pure Al, Al–Mg, and Al–Si powders: Effect of processing conditions and powder properties. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213(8), 1387–1405 (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ko, S.H., Pan, H., Grigoropoulos, C.P., Luscombe, C.K., Fréchet, J.M., Poulikakos, D.: All-inkjet-printed flexible electronics fabrication on a polymer substrate by low-temperature high-resolution selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticles. Nanotechnol. 18(34), 345202 (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ko, S.H., Pan, H., Grigoropoulos, C.P., Luscombe, C.K., Fréchet, J.M., Poulikakos, D.: Air stable high resolution organic transistors by selective laser sintering of ink-jet printed metal nanoparticles. ApplPhysLett. 90, 141103 (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mengucci, P., Barucca, G., Gatto, A., Bassoli, E., Denti, L., Fiori, F., Girardin, E., Bastianoni, P., Rutkowski, B., Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A.: Effects of thermal treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of a co–Cr–Mo–W biomedical alloy produced by laser sintering. J Mech Behavior Biomed Mat. 60, 106–117 (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tolochko, N.K., Mozzharov, S.E., Yadroitsev, I.A., Laoui, T., Froyen, L., Titov, V.I., Ignatiev, M.B.: Balling processes during selective laser treatment of powders. Rapid Prototyp. J. 10(2), 78–87 (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Loh, L.E., Chua, C.K., Yeong, W.Y., Song, J., Mapar, M., Sing, S.L., Liu, Z.H., Zhang, D.Q.: Numerical investigation and an effective modeling on the selective laser melting (SLM) process with aluminum alloy 6061. IntJ Heat Mass Transfer. 80, 288–300 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hu, H., Ding, X., Wang, L.: Optik numerical analysis of heat transfer during multi-layer selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg. Optik Int J Light Electron Opt. 127(20), 8883–8891 (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Read, N., Wang, W., Essa, K., Attallah, M.M.: Selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg alloy: process optimization and mechanical properties development. Mater. Des. 65, 417–424 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shah K, ulHaq I, Khan A, Shah SA, Khan M (2014) Pinkerton AJ. Parametric study of development of Inconel-steel functionally graded materials by laser direct metal deposition. Mat Des 54:531–538Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gharbi, M., Peyre, P., Gorny, C., Carin, M., Morville, S., Le Masson, P., Carron, D., Fabbro, R.: Influence of various process conditions on surface finishes induced by the direct metal deposition laser technique on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213(5), 791–800 (2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Corbin DJ, Nassar AR, Reutzel EW, Beese AM, Kistler NA (2017) Effect of directed energy deposition processing parameters on laser deposited Inconel® 718: external morphology. J laser Appl29:022001Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dinda GP, Dasgupta AK, Mazumder J (2009) Laser aided direct metal deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: microstructural evolution and thermal stability. Mater SciEngA509:98–104Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Balla, V.K., Bose, S., Bandyopadhyay, A.: Processing of bulk alumina ceramics using laser engineered net shaping. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 5(3), 234–242 (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bandyopadhyay, A., Krishna, B., Xue, W., Bose, S.: Application of laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to manufacture porous and functionally graded structures for load bearing implants. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(S1), 29–34 (2009)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Unocic, R.R., DuPont, J.N.: Process efficiency measurements in the laser engineered net shaping process. Metall. Mater. Trans. B Process Metall. Mater. Process. Sci. 35(1), 143–152 (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Atwood, C., Griffith, M.L., Schlienger, M.E., Harwell, L.D., Ensz, M.T., Keicher, D.M., Schlienger, M.E., Romero, J.A., Smugeresky, J.E.: Laser engineered net shaping (LENS): a tool for direct fabrication of metal parts. Proc ICALEO. 98, 16–19 (1998)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grünberger, T., Domröse, R.: Optical in-process monitoring of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). Laser Tech J. 11(2), 40–42 (2014)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Khaing, M.W., Fuh, J.Y., Lu, L.: Direct metal laser sintering for rapid tooling: processing andcharacterisation of EOS parts. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113(1), 269–272 (2001)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grünberger, T., Domröse, R.: Direct metal laser sintering. Laser Tech J. 12(1), 45–48 (2015)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shi, J.L.: Thermodynamics and densification kinetics in solid-state sintering of ceramics. J. Mater. Res. 14(4), 1398–1408 (1999)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Coble, R.L.: Sintering crystalline solids. I Intermediate and final state diffusion models J ApplPhys. 32, 787–792 (1961)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tolochko, N.K., Arshinov, M.K.: Mechanism of selective laser sintering and heat transfer in Ti powder. Rapid Prototyp. J. 9(5), 314–326 (2003)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Niu, H.J., Chang, I.T.H.: Liquid phase sintering of M3/2 high speed steel by selective laser sintering. ScriptaMaterialia. 39, 67–76 (1998)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhang, Y., Faghri, A., Buckely, C.W., Bergman, T.L.: Three-dimensional sintering of two-component metal powders with stationary and moving laser beams. J. Heat Transf. 122(1), 150–158 (2000)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gu, D.D., Meiners, W., Wissenbach, K., Poprawe, R.: Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes, and mechanisms. Int. Mater. Rev. 57(3), 133–164 (2012)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fang, M., Chen, B.: Fabrication of high porosity cu-based structure using direct laser sintering. Rapid Prototyp. J. 22(1), 207–214 (2016)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hadadzadeh, A., Baxter, C., Amirkhiz, B.S., Mohammadi, M.: Strengthening mechanisms in direct metal laser sintered AlSi10Mg: comparison between virgin and recycled powders. Addit Manuf. 23, 108–120 (2018)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nazemosadat, S.M., Foroozmehr, E., Badrossamay, M.: Preparation of alumina/polystyrene core-shell composite powder via phase inversion process for indirect selective laser sintering applications. Ceram. Int. 44(1), 596–604 (2018)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mohammadi, M., Asgari, H.: Achieving low surface roughness AlSi10Mg_200C parts using direct metal laser sintering. Addit Manuf. 20, 23–32 (2018)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fathi, P., Mohammadi, M., Duan, X., Nasiri, A.M.: A comparative study on corrosion and microstructure of direct metal laser sintered AlSi10Mg_200C and die cast A360. 1 aluminum. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 259, 1–14 (2018)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Asgari, H., Mohammadi, M.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel CX manufactured by direct metal laser sintering. Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 709, 82–89 (2018)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Keshavarzkermani, A., Sadowski, M., Ladani, L.: Direct metal laser melting of Inconel 718: process impact on grain formation and orientation. J Alloys Compound. 736, 297–305 (2018)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tang, Y., Loh, H.T., Wong, Y.S., Fuh, J.Y., Lu, L., Wang, X.: Direct laser sintering of a copper-based alloy for creating three-dimensional metal parts. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 140(1-3), 368–372 (2003)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Promoppatum, P., Onler, R., Yao, S.C.: Numerical and experimental investigations of micro and macro characteristics of direct metal laser sintered Ti-6Al-4V products. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 240, 262–273 (2017)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tan KH, Chua CK, Leong KF, Cheah CM, Cheang P, Bakar MA, Cha SW (2003) Scaffold development using selective laser sintering of polyetheretherketone–hydroxyapatite biocomposite blends. Biomat24:3115–3123Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Prashanth, K.G., Scudino, S., Maity, T., Das, J., Eckert, J.: Is the energy density a reliable parameter for materials synthesis by selective laser melting? Mater Res Lett. 5(6), 386–390 (2017)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gu, D., Shen, Y.: Balling phenomena in direct laser sintering of stainless steel powder: metallurgical mechanisms and control methods. Mater. Des. 30(8), 2903–2910 (2009)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chang, K., Gu, D.: Direct metal laser sintering synthesis of carbon nanotube reinforced Ti matrix composites: densification, distribution characteristics, and properties. J. Mater. Res. 31(2), 281–291 (2016)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bugeda Miguel Cervera, G., Lombera, G.: Numerical prediction of temperature and density distributions in selective laser sintering processes. Rapid Prototyping. J5, 21–26 (1999)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Niu, H.J., Chang, I.T.: Selective laser sintering of gas atomized M2 high speed steel powder. J. Mater. Sci. 35(1), 31–38 (2000)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Enneti, R.K., Morgan, R., Atre, S.V.: Effect of process parameters on the selective laser melting (SLM) of tungsten. Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 71, 315–319 (2018)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sing SL (2019) Formation of titanium-tantalum alloy using selective laser melting. In Selective Laser Melting of Novel Titanium-Tantalum Alloy as Orthopaedic Biomat 37–47Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sun, P., Zhang, L., Tao, S.: Preparation of hybrid chitosan membranes by selective laser sintering for adsorption and catalysis. Mater. Des. 107780, (2019)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yan, C., Hao, L., Hussein, A., Young, P., Huang, J., Zhu, W.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy cellular lattice structures manufactured by direct metal laser sintering. Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 628, 238–246 (2015)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Santos LP, Jardini AL, Gonçalves GR, Almeida AA, Coelho HL, da Silva MJ, Abreu HF, Béreš M (2015) Effect of cooling rate on microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by direct metal laser sintering blucher Phys proc 1:62-62Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yadroitsev, I., Smurov, I.: Surface morphology in selective laser melting of metal powders. PhysProc. 12, 264–270 (2011)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yuan, S., Strobbe, D., Kruth, J.P., Van Puyvelde, P., Van der Bruggen, B.: Production of polyamide-12 membranes for microfiltration through selective laser sintering. J. Membr. Sci. 525, 157–162 (2017)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yasa, E., Poyraz, O., Solakoglu, E.U., Akbulut, G., Oren, S.: A study on the stair stepping effect in direct metal laser sintering of a nickel-based Superalloy. Proc CIRP. 45, 175–178 (2016)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Van Zyl, I., Yadroitsava, I., Yadroitsev, I.: Residual stress in Ti6Al4V objects produced by direct metal laser sintering. SAJ Indus Eng. 27, 134–141 (2016)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Santos, E.C., Shiomi, M., Osakada, K., Laoui, T.: Rapid manufacturing of metal components by laser forming. Int J Mach Tool Manu. 46(12-13), 1459–1468 (2006)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ghosh, S.K., Bandyopadhyay, K., Saha, P.: Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique-optimization of process parameters. Mater. Charact. 93, 68–78 (2014)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Savalani, M.M., Pizarro, J.M.: Effect of preheat and layer thickness on selective laser melting (SLM) of magnesium. Rapid Prototyp. J. 22(1), 115–122 (2016)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pohl H, Simchi A, Issa M, Dias HC (2001) Thermal stresses in direct metal laser sintering. In Proc12th sol. Freeform FabSymp Austin, TX 366–372Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Verma, A., Tyagi, S., Yang, K.: Modeling and optimization of direct metal laser sintering process. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 77(5-8), 847–860 (2015)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kanagarajah, P., Brenne, F., Niendorf, T., Maier, H.J.: Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting: effect of microstructure and temperature on the mechanical properties under static and cyclic loading. Mater SciEngA. 588, 188–195 (2013)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Senthilkumaran, K., Pandey, P.M., Rao, P.V.: Influence of building strategies on the accuracy of parts in selective laser sintering. Mater. Des. 30(8), 2946–2954 (2009)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fischer, P., Romano, V., Weber, H.P., Karapatis, N.P., Boillat, E., Glardon, R.: Sintering of commercially pure titanium powder with a Nd: YAG laser source. Acta Mater. 51(6), 1651–1662 (2003)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tolochko, N.K., Arshinov, M.K., Gusarov, A.V., Titov, V.I., Laoui, T., Froyen, L.: Mechanisms of selective laser sintering and heat transfer in Ti powder. Rapid Prototyp. J. 9(5), 314–326 (2003)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hejmady, P., van Breemen, L.C., Anderson, P.D., Cardinaels, R.: Laser sintering of polymer particle pairs studied by in situ visualization. Soft Matter. 15(6), 1373–1387 (2019)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Galvin, T., Hyatt, N.C., Rainforth, W.M., Reaney, I.M., Shepherd, D.: Laser sintering of electrophoretically deposited (EPD) Ti3SiC2 MAX phase coatings on titanium. Surf. Coat. Technol. 366, 199–203 (2019)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ahmed, K., Allen, T., El-Azab, A.: Phase field modeling for grain growth in porous solids. J. Mater. Sci. 51(3), 1261–1277 (2016)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Denoual, C., Vattré, A.: A phase field approach with a reaction pathways-based potential to model reconstructive martensitic transformations with a large number of variants. J Mech Phys Solids. 90, 91–107 (2016)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gandin, C.A., Rappaz, M.: A coupled finite element-cellular automaton model for the prediction of dendritic grain structures in solidification processes. Acta Metallurgica etmaterialia. 42(7), 2233–2246 (1994)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Moelans, N., Blanpain, B., Wollants, P.: An introduction to phase-field modeling of microstructure evolution. Calphad. 32, 268–294 (2008)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sahoo, S.: Microstructure simulation of Ti-6Al-4V biomaterial produced by electron beam additive manufacturing process. Inter J Nano Bio mat. 5(4), 228–235 (2014)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Vrancken, B., Thijs, L., Kruth, J.P., Van Humbeeck, J.: Heat treatment of Ti6Al4V produced by selective laser melting: microstructure and mechanical properties. J. Alloys Compd. 541, 177–185 (2012)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sing, S.L., Yeong, W.Y., Wiria, F.E.: Selective laser melting of titanium alloy with 50 wt% tantalum: microstructure and mechanical properties. J. Alloys Compd. 660, 461–470 (2016)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Li, X.P., Van Humbeeck, J., Kruth, J.P.: Selective laser melting of weak-textured commercially pure titanium with high strength and ductility: a study from laser power perspective. Mater. Des. 116, 352–358 (2017)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Buchbinder, D., Schleifenbaum, H., Heidrich, S., Meiners, W., Bültmann, J.: High power selective laser melting (HP SLM) of aluminum parts. Phys. Procedia. 12, 271–278 (2011)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Makoana, N.W., Moller, H., Burger, H., Tlotleng, M., Yadroitsev, I.: Evaluation of single tracks of 17-4PH steel manufactured at different power densities and scanning speeds by selective laser melting. SAJ Ind Eng. 27, 210–218 (2016)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sing, S.L., Yeong, W.Y., Wiria, F.E., Tay, B.Y.: Characterization of titanium lattice structures fabricated by selective laser melting using an adapted compressive test method. Exp. Mech. 56(5), 735–748 (2016)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Xu, X., Mi, G., Luo, Y., Jiang, P., Shao, X., Wang, C.: Morphologies, microstructures, and mechanical properties of samples produced using laser metal deposition with 316L stainless steel wire. Opt. Lasers Eng. 94, 1–11 (2017)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vinod, A.R., Srinivasa, C.K., Keshavamurthy, R., Shashikumar, P.V.: A novel technique for reducing lead-time and energy consumption in fabrication of Inconel-625 parts by laser-based metal deposition process. Rapid Prototyp. J. 22(2), 269–280 (2016)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Zhong, C., Chen, J., Linnenbrink, S., Gasser, A., Sui, S., Poprawe, R.: A comparative study of Inconel 718 formed by high deposition rate laser metal deposition with GA powder and PREP powder. Mater. Des. 107, 386–392 (2016)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Articek, U., Milfelner, M., Anzel, I.: Synthesis of functionally graded material H13/cu by LENS technology. Adv Product Eng Manage. 8(3), 169–176 (2013)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fraser HL, Imam MA, Kosaka Y, Rack HJ, Chatterjee A, Woodfield A (2016) Effect of powder density variation on premixed Ti-6Al-4V and cu composites during laser metal deposition. Proc. 13th World Conf Titanium John Wiley & Sons 117-120Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Carroll, B.E., Otis, R.A., Borgonia, J.P., Suh, J.O., Dillon, R.P., Shapiro, A.A., Hofmann, D.C., Liu, Z.K., Beese, A.M.: Functionally graded material of 304L stainless steel and inconel 625 fabricated by directed energy deposition: characterization and thermodynamic modeling. Acta Mater. 108, 46–54 (2016)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jagadish, C.A., Priyanka, N.: Effect of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of 18Ni-300 grade Maraging steel built using the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technology. Key Eng. Mater. 719, 114–121 (2017)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stichel, T., Frick, T., Laumer, T., Tenner, F., Hausotte, T., Merklein, M., Schmidt, M.: A round Robin study for selective laser sintering of polyamide 12: microstructural origin of the mechanical properties. Opt. Laser Technol. 89, 31–40 (2017)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Becker, T.H., Beck, M., Scheffer, C.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of direct metal laser sintered Ti-6Al-4V. SAJ Indus Eng. 26, 1–10 (2015)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chen, Y.C., Nien, Y.T.: Microstructure and photoluminescence properties of laser sintered YAG: Ce phosphor ceramics. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 37(1), 223–227 (2017)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Arai, S., Tsunoda, S., Kawamura, R., Kuboyama, K., Ougizawa, T.: Comparison of crystallization characteristics and mechanical properties of poly (butylene terephthalate) processed by laser sintering and injection molding. Mater. Des. 113, 214–222 (2017)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yan, M., Yu, P.: An overview of densification, microstructure and mechanical property of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V—comparison among selective laser melting, electron beam melting, laser metal deposition and selective laser sintering, and with conventional powder. In Sint Tech Mater InTech. 47735, 77–106 (2015)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ferrage, L., Bertrand, G., Lenormand, P.: Dense yttria-stabilized zirconia obtained by direct selective laser sintering. Addit Manuf. 21, 472–478 (2018)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hu, Z., Chen, F., Xu, J., Ma, Z., Guo, H., Chen, C., Nian, Q., Wang, X., Zhang, M.: Fabricating graphene-titanium composites by laser sintering PVA bonding graphene titanium coating: microstructure and mechanical properties. Composit Part B: Engg. 134, 133–140 (2018)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Song, H., Kang, Z., Liu, Z., Wu, B.: Experimental study of double-pulse laser micro sintering: a novel laser micro sintering process. Manuf Lett. 19, 10–14 (2019)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Holfelder, P., Lu, J.M., Krempaszky, C., Werner, E.A.: A phase field approach for modeling melting and re-solidification of Ti-6Al-4V during selective laser melting. Key Eng. Mater. 704, 241–250 (2016)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Krivilyov, M.D., Mesarovic, S.D., Sekulic, D.P.: Phase-field model of interface migration and powder consolidation in additive manufacturing of metals. J. Mater. Sci. 52, 1–9 (2016)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ke, H., Mastorakos, I.: Phase field crystal simulation of grain growth in BCC metals during additive manufacturing. MRS Adv. 2(16), 887–896 (2017)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bruyere, V., Touvrey, C., Namy, P.: A phase field approach to model laser power control in spot laser welding. COMSOL Conference. 213, 1–6 (2014)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kundin, J., Mushongera, L., Emmerich, H.: Phase-field modeling of microstructure formation during rapid solidification in Inconel 718 superalloy. Acta Mater. 95, 343–356 (2015)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Li, J.Q., Fan, T.H., Taniguchi, T., Zhang, B.: Phase-field modeling on laser melting of a metallic powder. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 117, 412–424 (2018)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Keller, T., Lindwall, G., Ghosh, S., Ma, L., Lane, B.M., Zhang, F., Kattner, U.R., Lass, E.A., Heigel, J.C., Idell, Y., Williams, M.E.: Application of finite element, phase-field, and CALPHAD-based methods to additive manufacturing of Ni-based superalloys. Acta Mater. 139, 244–253 (2017)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Michaleris, P.: Modeling metal deposition in heat transfer analyses of additive manufacturing processes. Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 86, 51–60 (2014)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Thompson, S.M., Bian, L., Shamsaei, N., Yadollahi, A.: An overview of direct laser deposition for additive manufacturing; part I: transport phenomena, modeling, and diagnostics. AdditManuf. 8, 36–62 (2015)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sahoo, S., Chou, K.: Phase field simulation of microstructure evolution of Ti-6Al-4V in electron beam additive manufacturing process. AdditManuf. 9, 14–24 (2016)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sahoo S, Chou K (2016) Review on phase-field modeling of microstructure evolutions: application to electron beam additive manufacturing. ASME inter Manuf Sc Eng Conf V002T02A020:1-9Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ojha, A., Samantaray, M., Thatoi, D.N., Sahoo, S.: Continuum simulation of heat transfer and solidification behavior of AlSi10Mg in direct metal laser sintering process. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 338, 1–6 (2018)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Samantaray, M., Sahoo, S., Thatoi, D.N.: Computational modeling of heat transfer and sintering behavior during direct metal laser sintering of AlSi10Mg alloy powder. C R Mécanique. 346(11), 1043–1054 (2018)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Panda, B.K., Sahoo, S.: Numerical simulation of residual stress in laser based additive manufacturing process. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 338, 1–6 (2018)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Panda, B.K., Sahoo, S.: Thermo-mechanical modeling and validation of stress field during laser powder bed fusion of AlSi10Mg built part. Results Phys. 12, 1372–1381 (2019)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hu H, Ding X, Wang L (2016) Numerical analysis of heat transfer during multi-layer selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg Optik 127:8883-8891Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Satpathy, B.B., Nandy, J., Sahoo, S.: Investigation of consolidation kinetics and microstructure evolution of Al alloys in direct metal laser sintering using phase field simulation. IOP ConfSer Mater ScEng. 338, 1–6 (2018)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nandy, J., Sarangi, H., Sahoo, S.: Modeling of microstructure evolution in direct metal laser sintering: a phase field approach. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 178, 1–8 (2017)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nandy, J., Sarangi, H., Sahoo, S.: Microstructure evolution of Al-Si-10Mg in direct metal laser sintering using phase field modeling. Adv. Manuf. 6(1), 107–117 (2018)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jelis, E., Sadangi, R., Hespos, M., Kerwien, S., Clemente, M., Ravindra, N.: DMLS (direct metal laser sintering) 4340 steel: influence of starting particle size. In Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition. 2015, 63–67 (2015)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Schmidt DP, Jelis E, Clemente MP, Ravindra NM (2015) Corrosion of 3D Printed Steel. In Materials Science & Technology Conf. 2015, Columbus, OH: MS and T, 93–100Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Jelis, E., Clemente, M., Kerwien, S., Ravindra, N.M., Hespos, M.R.: Metallurgical and mechanical evaluation of 4340 steel produced by direct metal laser sintering. JOM. 67(3), 582–589 (2015)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Anusci, V.: GE’s Additive Technology Center in Ohio uses 90 metal 3D printers to make aircraft parts. (2018). Accessed 2 May 2018
  126. 126.
    Kusnadi, H.: 3D printing material, Sculpteo. (2017). Accessed 26 July 2017
  127. 127.
    Listek, V.: Boeing Creates the First 3D Printed Metal Satellite Antenna, Saves on Mass, Time, and Costs. (2019). Accessed 29 March 2019
  128. 128.
    Saunders, S.: Samsung Electronics Using Optomec’s Aerosol Jet 3D Printing to Make Next-Generation Consumer Electronics, (2019). Accessed 25 June 2019.
  129. 129.
    Cole, B.: Dell moves into 3-D printing market with MakerBot. (2014). Accessed February 2014
  130. 130.
    Haria, R.: Stratasys unveils OBJECT260 dental 3D printer to advance adoption of digital dentistry. (2018). Accessed 23 February 2018
  131. 131.
    Anna: HP and Siemens deepen additive manufacturing alliance, (2019). Accessed 17 May 2019
  132. 132.
    Essop, A.: Kodak announces design to print service for portrait 3D printer at Rapid+TCT. (2019). Accessed 20 May 2019
  133. 133.
    Saunders, S.: Lockheed Martin 3D Prints Large Titanium Domes for Satellite Fuel Tanks, (2018). Accessed 12 July 2018
  134. 134.
    Jackson, B.: BMW Group Kicks off Project for Serial Automotive Additive Manufacturing, (2019). Accessed 17 April 2019

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jyotirmoy Nandy
    • 1
  • Hrushikesh Sarangi
    • 1
  • Seshadev Sahoo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and ResearchSiksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University)BhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations