Optimal Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: an Update
Purpose of Review
Rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) in a growing global health crisis. RR-TB and HIV co-infection is common, and this dual infection brings with it unique diagnostic and treatment challenges. Here, we review the most recent developments in the epidemiology, prevention, diagnoses, and treatment—including the use of novel antituberculosis drugs—for these diseases. We also review strategies to combat stigma and support adherence for people living with HIV and RR-TB.
Advances in RR-TB diagnosis include genotypic tests, most notably Xpert MTB/RIF. Novel therapeutic advances in the treatment of RR-TB among people living with HIV include the use of new drugs (bedaquiline and delamanid), repurposed drugs (linezolid and clofazimine), and novel regimens (a shortened 9–12-month treatment). However, access to advances in diagnosis and treatment of RR-TB in people living with HIV is limited. Furthermore, there is a significant amount of stigma and discrimination against people with both HIV and RR-TB, and this could affect treatment outcomes via challenges with adherence.
We conclude that with high-quality diagnostics, treatment, and support, people living with HIV and RR-TB have good treatment outcomes; thus, access to all of these interventions is an urgent global priority.
KeywordsHIV Tuberculosis Rifampin-resistant Multidrug-resistant AIDS
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Anja Reuter declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jennifer Furin declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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