Drought stress severely limits wheat production worldwide. Availability of moisture for crop during critical growth stages is one of the important factors that determine grain yield. An experiment was conducted with five wheat genotypes (HD 2987, K 7903, HI 1563, HD 2824 and HD 2967) and dates of sowing (15th and 30th November) and 2 moisture regimes (one irrigation at crown root initiation stage and completely rainfed) during rabi (dry) seasons of 2014–2015 and 2015–2016, in order to determine their potential in terms of physiological parameters viz., relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), chlorophyll content, proline content, gas exchange parameters and yield attributes. Study revealed that the physiological traits viz., RWC, MSI and total chlorophyll content declined, while moisture-deficit stress indicator level (proline level) increased under rainfed condition across the wheat genotypes, at both the developmental stages (anthesis and A + 20 days). At both stages, genotypes HI 1563 followed by HD 2987 were able to maintain high RWC (69.5 and 65.1%; 68.7 and 65%), MSI (75.2 and 64.5%; 63.1 and 57.7%), chlorophyll content (4.7 and 2.6 mg g−1 D.W.; 3.3 and 2.13 mg g−1 D.W), respectively as compared to other genotypes. High RWC, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate are important for maintaining physiological efficiency under deficit moisture condition to harness optimum yield. Further, high RWC led to more osmotic regulation or less elasticity of tissue cell wall. Moreover, growth and yield attributes were significantly higher under one irrigation as compared to complete rainfed condition. Wheat variety ‘HD 2967’ produced significantly higher number of grains ear−1(44.75). The test weight ranged from 33.2 g in K 7903 to 35.6 g in HD 2824. Wheat sown on 15th November produced higher grain yield (2.9 t ha−1) as compared to 30th November sowing (2.7 t ha−1), but the difference was not significant. One irrigation at CRI stage produced significantly higher grain yield (3.26 and 3.18 t ha−1) as compared to no irrigation (2.52 and 2.30 t ha−1).
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ali, Q., & Ashraf, M. (2011). Induction of drought tolerance in maize due to exogenous application of threolose: growth, photosynthesis, water relation and oxidative defence mechanism. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 1, 1–14.
Almeselmani, M., Abdullah, F., Hareri, F., Naaesan, M., Ammar, M. A., Kanbar, O. Z., et al. (2011). Effect of drought on different physiological characters and yield component in different Syrian durum wheat varieties. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 3, 127–133.
Anonymous. (2014). Best bets for the wheat season in Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. FrontLines, the news publication of USAID.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts, polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24, 1–15.
Basu, P. S., Ali, M., & Chaturvedi, S. K. (2004). Adaptation of photosynthetic components of chickpea to water stress. In 4th international crop science congress.
Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. D., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205–207.
Blum, A. (1996). Crop responses to drought and interpretation of adaptation. Plant Growth Regulation, 20, 135–148.
Blum, A., & Pnuel, Y. (1990). Physiological attributes associated with drought resistance of wheat cultivars in a mediterranean environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 41, 799–810.
Boyer, G. L., & Zeevart, J. A. D. (1982). Isolation and quantification of β-D glucopyranosylabscisate from leaves of Xanthium and spinach. Plant Physiology, 70, 227–231.
Dadbakhsh, A., Yazdansepas, A., & Ahmadizadeh, M. (2012). Influence of water deficit on yield and some quantitative traits in wheat genotypes. Current Research Journal of Biological Science, 4, 75–81.
Davidson, D. J., & Chevalier, P. M. (1987). Influence of poly ethylene glycol-induced water deficits on tiller production in spring wheat. Crop Science, 27, 1185–1187.
Dwivedi, S. K., Arora, A., Singh, V. P., & Singh, G. P. (2017). Induction of water deficit tolerance in wheat due to exogenous application of plant growth regulators: membrane stability, water relations and photosynthesis. Photosynthetica. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-016-06.
Dwivedi, S. K., Singh, V. P., Singh, G. P., & Arora, A. (2012). Combined effect of cytokinin, paclobutrazol and ascorbic acid on nitrogen metabolism and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water deficit stress condition. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17, 259–267.
El-Hafid, R., Smith, D. H., Karrou, M., & Samir, K. (1998). Physiological responses of spring durum wheat cultivars to early season drought in a mediterranian environment. Annals of Botany, 81, 363–370.
Fischer, R. A. (1973). Developmental orphology of the inflorescene in hexaploid wheat cultivars with and without Norin 10 in their ancestry. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 53, 715.
Hare, P. D., Cress, W. A., & van Staden, J. (1997). The involvement of cytokinins in plant responses to environmental stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 23, 79–103.
IPCC. (2007). Fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change.
Kalra, N., Chakraborty, D., Sharma, A., Rai, H. K., Jolly, M., Chander, S., et al. (2008). Effect of increasing temperature on yield of some winter crops in northwest India. Current Science, 94(1), 82–88.
Lawlor, D. W. (1995). The effect of water deficit on photosynthesis. In N. Smirnoff (Ed.), Environment and plant metabolism, flexibility and acclimation (pp. 129–160). London: BIOS Scientific Publisher.
Lobell, D. B., Ortiz-Monasterio, J. I., Sibley, A. M., & Sohu, V. S. (2012). Satellite detection of earlier wheat sowing in India and implications for yield trends. Agriculture System. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2012.09.003.
Martin, U., Alladru, S. G., & Bahari, Z. A. (1987). Dehydration tolerance of leaf tissues of six woody angiosperm species. Physiologia Plantarum, 69, 182–186.
Martinez, J. P., Silva, H., Ledent, J. F., & Pinto, M. (2007). Effect of drought stress on the osmotic adjustment, cell wall elasticity and cell volume of six cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 26, 30–38.
Musick, J. K., & Dusek, D. A. (1980). Planting date and water deficit effects on development and yield of irrigated winter wheat. Agronomy Journal, 72, 45–52.
Ritchie, S. W., Nguyan, H. T., & Holaday, A. S. (1990). Leaf water content and gas exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science, 30, 105–111.
Sairam, R. K., Deshmukh, P. S., & Shukla, D. S. (1997). Tolerance to drought and temperature stress in relation to increased antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 178, 171–177.
Senaratana, T., & Kersi, B. D. (1983). Characterization of solute efflux from dehydration injured soybean (Glycine max, Merr.). seeds. Plant Physiology, 72, 911–914.
Shao, H. B., Liang, Z. S., & Shao, M. A. (2005). Changes of some anti-oxidative enzymes under soil water deficits among 10 wheat genotypes at maturation stage. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 45, 7–13.
Sharif, P., & Mohammadkhani, N. (2016). Effects of drought stress on photosynthesis factors in wheat genotypes during anthesis. Cereal Research Communication, 44(2), 229–239. https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.43.2015.054.
Siddique, R. B., Hamid, A., & Islam, M. S. (2000). Drought stress effects on water relations of wheat. Botanical Bulletin-Academia Sinica, 41, 35–39.
Taheri, S., Saba, J., Shekari, F., & Abdullah, T. L. (2011). Effects of drought stress condition on the yield of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(80), 18339–18348.
Vasquez-Tello, A., Zuily-Fodil, Y., Pham-Thi, A. T., & Viera Da Silva, J. B. (1990). Electrolyte and Pi leakages and soluble sugar content as physiological tests for screening resistance to water stress in Phaseolus and Vigna species. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41, 827–832.
Weatherley, P. E. (1950). Studies in the water relations of the cotton plant. I. The field measurements of water deficit in leaves. New Phytology, 49, 81–97.
Zaharieva, M., Gaulin, E., Havaux, M., Acevedo, E., & Monneveux, P. (2001). Drought and heat responses in the wild wheat relative Aegilops geniculata Roth. Crop Science, 41, 1321–1329.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Dwivedi, S.K., Kumar, S., Mishra, J.S. et al. Effect of moisture regimes and sowing dates on wheat physiological process and yield attributes under rain-fed ecosystem in Eastern Indo Gangetic Plain. Plant Physiol. Rep. 24, 46–53 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-018-0406-4
- Moisture regimes
- Sowing window
- Morpho-physiological traits