Epigenetic Alterations Impact on Antipsychotic Treatment in Elderly Patients
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Purpose of the review
Antipsychotics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of psychosis as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in elderly patients. However, elderly patients often experience decreased antipsychotic efficacy and increased side effects, though the mechanisms underlying these changes with age are not clear.
Although aging can affect drug metabolism and clearance through changes in renal and hepatic function, additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes due to aging-induced epigenetic alterations also impact processes important for antipsychotic function. Epigenetic mechanisms account for some of the altered efficacy and increased side effects seen in elderly patients.
Both clinical and animal studies from our group and others have demonstrated a plausible epigenetic mechanism involving histone modifications that can adversely affect the efficacy of antipsychotics and increase their side effects in elderly patients. Hopefully, further investigation of this mechanism will benefit elderly patients who need treatment for psychosis and BPSD.
KeywordsEpigenetics Histone modification Antipsychotics Aging Drug efficacy Side effects
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Bryan M. McClarty declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Daniel W. Fisher declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Hongxin Dong declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and animal Rights in Informed Consent
In this review papers, the cited articles contain studies with human and animal work approved by institutional review boards before publication.
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Papers of particular interest, published recently,have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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