Skip to main content

Functional Aesthetics in Implantology and Reconstructive Dentistry: Analysis and Transfer of Referenced Individual Patient Information With the PlaneSystem®


Purpose of Review

The goal of every dental treatment should be a sustainable and functional care which is adapted to the individual movement patterns. In this context, a structured and anatomically accurate functional analysis can contribute to the correct muscular and skeletal adjustment of patients in order to develop the correct treatment strategy, which then guarantees a permanently stable reconstruction. The individual and whole-body analysis as well as the dental history of the patient and the correct transfer into the articulator play an important role. How accurately can the dental technician judge the actual situation of the patient? How realistic are planes, chewing patterns, jaw joint movements and closing angles represented in the articulator compared to the oral situation? Innovative aspects such as the reference to the natural head position (NHP), the exact determination of the anatomical centre and the correct three-dimensional transfer into the articulator are decisive factors which influence the success of the treatment.

Recent Findings

This article focuses on the realistic, correctly positioned transfer of the casts and other anatomical parameters into the analogue or virtual articulator. The development of the function-analytical method is presented using the PlaneSystem®. The detection of patient-specific details using the analogue method (e.g. head posture, facial proportions, physiognomic landmark, cast analysis, cast orientation, movement recording, joint mechanics, lower jaw position in physiological, unmanipulated centric) as well as the digital procedure (e.g. facial scan, three-dimensional analysis, photo documentation) and their transfer into the articulator form the basis. The occlusal plane and asymmetries are measured individually for each patient and transferred into the articulator in the same way as the vertical dimension of the occlusion (VDO) and the alignment of the lower jaw. All collected information can finally be integrated into a digital workflow so that reference can be made to purely virtual solutions.


In the following, the necessity out of which the systematics developed as well as the individual development stages are described. Furthermore, the potential is illustrated in that the use of this method offers to the prosthetic working team.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Figs. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16


  1. Hergenroether R. CMD-Patient in der Physiotherapie. Zahntech Mag. 2015;18:260–7.

    Google Scholar 

  2. van der Linden FPGM. Development of the human dentition, 1st edn. Quintessence, 2016.

  3. van der Linden FPGM. Orthodontics with fixed appliances, 6th edn. Quintessence, 1997.

  4. van der Linden FPGM. Facial growth and facial orthopedics. Quintessence, 1986.

  5. Chan CA. A review of the clinical significance of the occlusal plane: its variation and effect on head posture—“Optimizing the neuromuscular trajectory—a key to stabilizing the occlusal-cervical posture.”

  6. Hugger A, Türp JC, Pröschel P, Strub JR, Stüttgen U. Die Anwendung von Gesichtsbögen in der restaurativen Therapie und Funktionsdiagnostik – welches Evidenzniveau liegt vor? Dtsch Zahnärztl Z. 2001;56:671–5.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Xie J, Zhao Y, Chao Y, Luo W. A cephalometric study on determining the orientation of occlusal plane. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1993;24:422–5 [Article in Japanese].

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Ferrario VF, Sforza V, Serrao G, Ciusa V. A direct in vivo measurement of the three-dimensional orientation of the occlusal plane and of the sagittal discrepancy of the jaws. Clin Orthod Res. 2000;3:15–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Schöttl R, Plaster U. Modellübertragung und Kommunikation zwischen Zahnarzt und Zahntechniker. Quintessenz Zahntech. 2010;36:528–43.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Schöttl R. Scharnierachse ade! Myobyte. 2008;2:7–14.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Sinobad D, Postic SD. Roentgencraniometric indicators of the position of the occlusal plane in natural and artificial dentitions. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 1996;4:169–74.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Cooke MS. Five-year reproducibility of natural head posture: a longitudinal study. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 1990;97:487–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Peng L, Cooke MS. Fifteen-year reproducibility of natural head posture: a longitudinal study. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 1999;116:82–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Marquardt S, Moser A. Funktionelle Ästhetische Rehabilitation – Die Übertragung der realen anatomischen Parameter in den Artikulator. Quintessenz Zahntechnik. 2014;40(11):1406–16.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Fonseca M, Plaster U, Strauß M. PlaneSystem – Bestimmung der genauen Lage der Mitte und der individuellen Okklusionsebene im Verhältnis zur natürlichen Lage des Oberkiefers bei einem (zahnlosen) Implantatfall – Teil 1. Quintessenz Zahntech. 2015;41:282–96.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Fonseca M, Plaster U, Strauß M. PlaneSystem – Bestimmung der genauen Lage der Mitte und der individuellen Okklusionsebene im Verhältnis zur natürlichen Lage des Oberkiefers bei einem (zahnlosen) Implantatfall – Teil 2. Quintessenz Zahntech. 2015;41:844–58.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Neumeyer S. The tissue master concept (TMC): innovations for alveolar ridge preservation. Int J Esthet Dent. 2017;12(2):246–57.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Neumeyer et al. Ein biologisches Behandlungskonzept für die Extraktionsalveole Die Replantation und Extrusion von Wurzelsegmenten Implantologie 2014;22(2):149–158.

  19. Plaster U, Marquardt S. Analyse und Transfer referenzierbarer individueller Patienteninformationen mit dem PlaneSystem®. Quintessenz Zahntechnik. 2019;45(7):908–21.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Bennett NG. A contribution to the study of the movements of the mandible. J Prosthet Dent. 1908;8:41–54 (reprinted 1958).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gysi A. In: Partsch, Bruhn, Kantorowicz. Handbuch der Zahnheilkunde Band III. 1926.

  22. Kato T. A study on the reference planes and lines for dental practice. [Article in Japanese]. Aichi Gakuin Daigaku Shigakkai Shi. 1990;28:1–19.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Kordaß B. Kieferrelationsbestimmung – eine Herausforderung. Quintessenz Zahntech. 2011;37:1105.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Lauritzen A. Atlas of occlusal analysis. HAH: Colorado Springs; 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  25. McCollum BB, Evans RL. The gnathological concepts of Charles E. Stuart, Beverly B. McCollum and Harvey Stallard. Georgetown Dent J. 1970;36:12–20.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. McCollum BB, Stuart CE. A research report. Scientific: South Pasadena; 1955.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Ogawa T, Koyano K, Suetsugu T. Characteristics of masticatory movement in relation to inclination of occlusal plane. J Oral Rehabil. 1997;24:652–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Ogawa T, Koyano K, Suetsugu T. Correlation between inclination of occlusal plane and masticatory movement. J Dent. 1998;26:105–12.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Ogawa T, Koyano K, Suetsugu T. The relationship between inclination of the occlusal plane and jaw closing path. J Prosthet Dent. 1996;76:576–780.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Ogawa T, Koyano K, Umemoto G. Inclination of the occlusal plane and occlusal guidance as contributing factors in mastication. J Dent. 1998;26:641–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Plaster U. Fotografische Übersicht der ästhetischen Gesichtsbogenanalyse. Quintessenz Zahntech. 2012;38:140–60.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Plaster U. Natürliche Asymmetrien und die patientenindividuelle Wiedergabe der Okklusionsebene ohne traditionellen Transferbogen. Quintessenz Zahntech. 2013;39:1266–80.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Plaster U. Das Plane-System – vom analogen Gips- zum digitalen CAD-Modell. Quintessenz Zahntech. 2014;40:570–86.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Posselt U. Physiology of occlusion and rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell; 1968.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Plaster, Udo Transfer of the patient’s oral situation to the articulator and synchronizing the articulated models. Part 1, 2: occlusal plane and jaw relation—the analysis and transfer of information. J Craniomand Func 11 (2019), No. 2 (22.05.2019).

  36. Agarwal G, Thomas R, Mehta D. Postextraction maintenance of the alveolar ridge: rationale and review. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2012;33(5):320–4 326; quiz 327, 336.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Horowitz R, Holtzclaw D, Rosen PS. A review on alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2012 Sep;12(3 Suppl):149–60.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Siegfried Marquardt.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Marquardt declares no conflicts of interest.

MDT Plaster reports the following patents: Ihr EU-Patent 271 25 75, hier: italienischer Teil des Patents (50 2016 000 078 790), and Ihr EU-Patent 271 25 75, hier: 1. deutscher Teil des Patents (DE 50 2013 003 454.2); 2. italienischer Teil des Patents (50 2016 000 078 790); 3. österreichischer Teil des Patents (E 807 196).

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Modern Production Laboratory Advances in Dental Technology

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Marquardt, S., Plaster, U. Functional Aesthetics in Implantology and Reconstructive Dentistry: Analysis and Transfer of Referenced Individual Patient Information With the PlaneSystem®. Curr Oral Health Rep 6, 321–338 (2019).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: