Cardiovascular Diseases and Periodontal Disease
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Purpose of Review
Periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases are both inflammatory conditions. Recent epidemiological studies have associated the effects of periodontitis on cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. This review aims to summarize the relationship between those two conditions.
Although there is no evidence of a causal relationship, an association between the two conditions is apparent. The potential factors include bacterial pathway, inflammation, and genetics. Periodontal bacteria affect endothelial cells through interactions that aggravate the atherogenic process. Ulcerated periodontium produces cytokines which increase the production of acute-phase proteins that have been associated with cardiovascular events. Genetic studies have demonstrated the presence of risk alleles in the genes ANRIL and CAMTA1/VAMP3 that are shared between these two diseases.
This review discusses the current understanding of CVD pathogenesis, underlying mechanisms of periodontitis in CVD, and effects of periodontal therapy on CVD, and provides guidelines for treating patients with CVD risks in respect to periodontal disease.
KeywordsPeriodontal disease Cardiovascular disease Periodontitis Atherosclerosis Inflammation Clinical guidelines
We would like to thank previous contributions from Doctors C.M. Nguyen, J.W.M. Kim, V.H. Quan, and B.H. Nguyen who led to this updated review.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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