Current Oral Health Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 193–197 | Cite as

Artificial Aging of Zirconium Dioxide: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Clinical Relevance

  • Mutlu ÖzcanEmail author
  • Cláudia Ângela Maziero Volpato
  • Márcio Celso Fredel
Dental Restorative Materials (M Özcan, section editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Dental Restorative Materials


Due to its superior mechanical properties, yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal is considered as one of the most promising materials to manufacture prosthetic frameworks, monolithic crowns, and abutments for implants in dentistry. When stabilized in the tetragonal phase, the structure of zirconia can respond to external stress by increasing its toughness and resistance. Unfortunately, when subjected to a humid environment, zirconia may undergo considerable degradation characterized by increased surface roughness, grain growth, and propagation of microcracks that could be detrimental for its mechanical properties. This phenomenon, also known as low-temperature degradation (LTD), when not minimized, may represent a setback for the longevity of zirconia especially used for biomedical applications. LTD is studied in in vitro or in vivo settings employing different strategies. Present clinical studies, however, with their shortcomings, do not signify high incidence of failures of zirconia for dental applications. The LTD of zirconia is currently being criticized based on laboratory testing which may be suboptimal. This review will highlight the existing knowledge on the artificial aging methods studying LTD in zirconia and their relevance considering clinical performance of zirconia prostheses.


Aging Low-temperature degradation Zirconia Y-TZP 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mutlu Özcan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cláudia Ângela Maziero Volpato
    • 2
  • Márcio Celso Fredel
    • 3
  1. 1.Dental Materials Unit, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Materials ScienceUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Health Sciences Center, Department of DentistryFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  3. 3.Technological Center, Department of Mechanical EngineeringFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil

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