Skip to main content

Medicinal Use of Synthetic Cannabinoids—a Mini Review

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review gives an overview of the medicinal uses of synthetic cannabinoids and other related aspects on the basis of recent as well as earlier studies that the authors considered relevant to the context and scope of the review.

Recent Findings

Synthetic cannabinoids are laboratory synthesized products eliciting effects way more than their natural counterparts. These compounds are more potent in generating intoxicating effects and are also difficult to be detected in conventional screening tests. Their clinical side effects are also more pronounced than natural cannabinoids, and their antidotes are also not known. However, they are also therapeutically found to be very effective in many health conditions, as these act by interacting with almost ubiquitously distributed cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) in the human body and by other mechanisms also that do not involve these receptors.

Summary

All the issues related to their appropriate dosage, mode of action, acute and chronic effects in vivo, interaction with other drugs, their metabolism, etc. need much research to be done so that it will be easier to predict their different aspects in human subjects in more appropriate way. Further, development of strict legislation and regulation is required to be done so that their abuse can be curbed, and toxic effects can be reduced, but medicinal benefits and usage can be enhanced.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. 1.

    Burstein SH, Zurier RB. Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and related analogs in inflammation. AAPS J. 2009;11(1):109–19. https://doi.org/10.1208/s12248-009-9084-5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Patil KR, Goyal SN, Sharma C, Patil CR, Ojha S. Phytocannabinoids for cancer therapeutics: recent updates and future prospects. Curr Med Chem. 2015;22(30):3472–501. https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867322666150716115057.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Morales P, Hurst DP, Reggio PH. Molecular targets of the phytocannabinoids: a complex picture. Prog Chem Org Nat Prod. 2017;103:103–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45541-9_4.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. The absolute configuration of delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active constituent of hashish. Tetrahedron Lett. 1967;12:1109–11.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Mechoulam R, Peters M, Murillo-Rodrigiiez E, Hanus LO. Cannabidiol—recent advances. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4(8):1678–92. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200790147.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Schuel H, Burkman LJ, Lippes J, Crickard K, Forester E, Piomelli D, et al. N-Acylethanolamines in human reproductive fluids. Chem Phys Lipids. 2002, 121;(1–2):211–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-3084(02)00158-5.

  7. 7.

    Giuffrida A, Piomelli D. The endocannabinoid system: a physiological perspective on its role in psychomotor control. Chem Phys Lipids. 2000;108(1–2):151–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-3084(00)00193-6.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Murillo-Rodriguez E, Sanchez-Alavez M, Navarro L, Martinez-Gonzalez D, Drucker-Colin R, Prospero-Garcia O. Anandamide modulates sleep and memory in rats. Brain Res. 1998;812(1–2):270–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(98)00969-X.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Howlett AC, Mukhopadhyay S. Cellular signal transduction by anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Chem Phys Lipids. 2000;108(1–2):53–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-3084(00)00187-0.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Pertwee RG. Ligands that target cannabinoid receptors in the brain: from THC to anandamide and beyond. Addict Biol. 2008;13(2):147–59. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-1600.2008.00108.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Khan MI, Sobocinska AA, Czarnecka AM, Krol M, Botta B, Szczylik C. The therapeutic aspects of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) for cancer and their development: from nature to laboratory. Curr Pharm Design. 2016;22(12):1756–66. https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612822666151211094901.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Mills B, Yepes A, Nugent K. Synthetic cannabinoids. Am J Med Sci. 2015;350(1):59–62. https://doi.org/10.1097/MAJ.0000000000000466.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Pertwee RG. Pharmacology of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. Pharmacol Therapeut. 1997;74(2):129–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7258(97)82001-3.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ, Young AC, Bonner TI. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature. 1990;346(6284):561–4. https://doi.org/10.1038/346561a0.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Munro S, Thomas KL, Abushaar M. Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Nature. 1993;365(6441):61–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/365061a0.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Rom S, Persidsky Y. Cannabinoid receptor 2: potential role in immunomodulation and neuroinflammation. J NeuroImmune Pharmacol. 2013;8(3):608–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-013-9445-9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Schicho R, Storr M. Alternative targets within the endocannabinoid system for future treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011;25(7):377–83. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/953975.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    De Petrocellis L, Di Marzo V. An introduction to the endocannabinoid system: from the early to the latest concepts. Best Pract Res Cl En. 2009;23(1):1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2008.10.013.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Anand P, Whiteside G, Fowler CJ, Hohmann AG. Targeting CB2 receptors and the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of pain. Brain Res Rev. 2009;60(1):255–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.12.003.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    del Pulgar T, Velasco G, Guzman M. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor is coupled to the activation of protein kinase B/Akt. Biochem J. 2000;347:369–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ameri A. The effects of cannabinoids on the brain. Prog Neurobiol. 1999;58(4):315–48.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Tampus R, Yoon SS, de la Pena JB, Botanas CJ, Kim HJ, Seo JW, et al. Assessment of the abuse liability of synthetic cannabinoid agonists JWH-030, JWH-175, and JWH-176. Biomol Ther. 2015;23(6):590–6. https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2015.120.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Huffman JW, Padgett LW. Recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of cannabimimetic indoles, pyrroles and indenes. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(12):1395–411. https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867054020864.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Theunissen EL, Hutten NRPW, Mason NL, Toennes SW, Kuypers KPC, Perna EBDF, et al. Neurocognition and subjective experience following acute doses of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018: a phase 1, placebo-controlled, pilot study. Brit J Pharmacol. 2018;175(1):18–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14066.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Yun J, Yoon KS, Lee TH, Lee H, Gu SM, Song YJ, et al. Synthetic cannabinoid, JWH-030, induces QT prolongation through hERG channel inhibition. Toxicol Res-Uk. 2016;5(6):1663–71. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6tx00259e.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Griffin G, Atkinson PJ, Showalter VM, Martin BR, Abood ME. Evaluation of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists using the guanosine-5’-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate binding assay in rat cerebellar membranes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;285(2):553–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Norooznezhad AH, Norooznezhad F. Cannabinoids: possible agents for treatment of psoriasis via suppression of angiogenesis and inflammation. Med Hypotheses. 2017;99:15–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2016.12.003.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Sanchez C, de Ceballos ML, Gomez del Pulgar T, Rueda D, Corbacho C, Velasco G, et al. Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor. Cancer Res. 2001;61(15):5784–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Blazquez C, Salazar M, Carracedo A, Lorente M, Egia A, Gonzalez-Feria L, et al. Cannabinoids inhibit glioma cell invasion by down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Cancer Res. 2008;68(6):1945–52. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.Can-07-5176.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Li Q, Guo HC, Maslov LN, Qiao XW, Zhou JJ, Zhang Y. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a role in the cardioprotection of CB2 receptor against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Can J Physiol Pharm. 2014;92(3):205–14. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2013-0293.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Grim TW, Samano KL, Ignatowska-Jankowska B, Tao Q, Sim-Selly LJ, Selley DE, et al. Pharmacological characterization of repeated administration of the first generation abused synthetic cannabinoid CP47,497. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;27(3):217–28. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0118.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Gorbunov AS, Maslov LN, Tsibulnikov SY, Khaliulin IG, Tsepokina AV, Khutornaya MV, et al. CB-receptor agonist HU-210 mimics the postconditioning phenomenon of isolated heart. B Exp Biol Med+. 2016;162(1):27–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10517-016-3536-6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Ramirez BG, Blazquez C, del Pulgar TG, Guzman N, de Ceballos MAL. Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation. J Neurosci 2005;25(8):1904–1913. doi:https://doi.org/10.1053/Jneurosci.4540-04.2005.

  34. 34.

    Kokona D, Georgiou PC, Kounenidakis M, Kiagiadaki F, Thermos K Endogenous synthetic cannabinoids as therapeutics in retinal disease. Neural Plast 2016. doi:Artn 8373020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/8373020, 2016, 1, 12.

  35. 35.

    Lax P, Esquiva G, Altavilla C, Cuenca N. Neuroprotective effects of the cannabinoid agonist HU210 on retinal degeneration. Exp Eye Res. 2014;120:175–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2014.01.019.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Krylatov AV, Ugdyshekova DS, Bernatskaya NA, Maslov LN, Mekhoulam R, Pertwee RG, et al. Activation of type II cannabinoid receptors improves myocardial tolerance to arrhythmogenic effects of coronary occlusion and reperfusion. B Exp Biol Med+. 2001;131(6):523–5. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012381914518.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Schicho R, Bashashati M, Bawa M, McHugh D, Saur D, Hu HM, et al. The atypical cannabinoid O-1602 protects against experimental colitis and inhibits neutrophil recruitment. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17(8):1651–64. https://doi.org/10.1002/ibd.21538.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Devane WA, Breuer A, Sheskin T, Jarbe TUC, Eisen MS, Mechoulam R. A novel probe for the cannabinoid receptor. J Med Chem. 1992;35(11):2065–9. https://doi.org/10.1021/jm00089a018.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Aguirre-Rueda D, Guerra-Ojeda S, Aldasoro M, Iradi A, Obrador E, Mauricio MD, et al. WIN 55,212-2, agonist of cannabinoid receptors, prevents amyloid beta1-42 effects on astrocytes in primary culture. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122843. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122843.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    More SV, Choi DK. Promising cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease: motor symptoms to neuroprotection. Mol Neurodegener 2015;10. doi: ARTN 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13024-015-0012-0.

  41. 41.

    Song ZH, Slowey CA. Involvement of cannabinoid receptors in the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of WIN55212-2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;292(1):136–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Oltmanns MH, Samudre SS, Castillo IG, Hosseini A, Lichtman AH, Allen RC, et al. Topical WIN55212-2 alleviates intraocular hypertension in rats through a CB1 receptor-mediated mechanism of action. J Ocul Pharmacol Th. 2008;24(1):104–15. https://doi.org/10.1089/jop.2007.0074.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Gonzalez C, Herradon E, Abalo R, Vera G, Perez-Nievas BG, Leza JC, et al. Cannabinoid/agonist WIN 55,212-2 reduces cardiac ischaemia—reperfusion injury in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: role of CB2 receptors and iNOS/eNOS. Diabetes-Metab Res. 2011;27(4):331–40. https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.1176.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    de Lago E, Moreno-Martet M, Cabranes A, Ramos JA, Fernandez-Ruiz J. Cannabinoids ameliorate disease progression in a model of multiple sclerosis in mice, acting preferentially through CB1 receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62(7):2299–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.01.030.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Downer EJ, Clifford E, Amu S, Fallon PG, Moynagh PN. The synthetic cannabinoid R(+)WIN55,212-2 augments interferon-beta expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. J Biol Chem. 2012;287(30):25440–53. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.371757.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Galve-Roperh I, Sanchez C, Cortes ML, del Pulgar TG, Izquierdo M, Guzman M. Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids: involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Nat Med. 2000;6(3):313–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Mueller L, Radtke A, Decker J, Koch M, Belge G. The synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 elicits death in human cancer cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2017;37(11):6341–5. https://doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12086.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Hill KP, Palastro MD, Gruber SA, Fitzmaurice GM, Greenfield SF, Lukas SE, et al. Nabilone pharmacotherapy for cannabis dependence: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Am J Addiction. 2017;26(8):795–801. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12622.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Pergolizzi JV, Taylor R, LeQuang JA, Zampogna G, Raffa RB. Concise review of the management of iatrogenic emesis using cannabinoids: emphasis on nabilone for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Chemoth Pharm. 2017;79(3):467–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00280-017-3257-1.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Hernandez SL, Sheyner I, Stover KT, Stewart JT. Dronabinol treatment of refractory nausea and vomiting related to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Am J Hosp Palliat Me. 2015;32(1):5–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049909113504240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Albertson TE, Chenoweth JA, Colby DK, Sutter ME. The changing drug culture: medical and recreational marijuana. FP essentials. 2016;441:11–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Ranieri R, Laezza C, Bifulco M, Marasco D, Malfitano AM. Endocannabinoid system in neurological disorders. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2016;10(2):90–112.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Fernandez-Ruiz J, Moro MA, Martinez-Orgado J. Cannabinoids in neurodegenerative disorders and stroke/brain trauma: from preclinical models to clinical applications. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4):793–806. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-015-0381-7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Aso E, Ferrer I. Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving toward the clinic. Front Pharmacol. 2014;5:37. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2014.00037.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Hinz B, Ramer R. Anti-tumour actions of cannabinoids. Br J Pharmacol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14426.

  56. 56.

    Daris B, Tancer Verboten M, Knez Z, Ferk P. Cannabinoids in cancer treatment: therapeutic potential and legislation. Bosnian J Basic Med Sci. 2018. https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2018.3532.

  57. 57.

    Olea-Herrero N, Vara D, Malagarie-Cazenave S, Diaz-Laviada I. Inhibition of human tumour prostate PC-3 cell growth by cannabinoids R(+)-methanandamide and JWH-015: involvement of CB2. Brit. J Cancer. 2009;101(6):940–50. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6605248.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Kenyon J, Liu W, Dalgleish A. Report of objective clinical responses of cancer patients to pharmaceutical-grade synthetic cannabidiol. Anticancer Res. 2018;38(10):5831–5. https://doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12924.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Wilkinson JD, Williamson EM. Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. J Dermatol Sci. 2007;45(2):87–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2006.10.009.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Naveh N, Weissman C, Muchtar S, Benita S, Mechoulam R. A submicron emulsion of HU-211, a synthetic cannabinoid, reduces intraocular pressure in rabbits. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2000;238(4):334–338.

  61. 61.

    Gado F, Digiacomo M, Macchia M, Bertini S, Manera C. Traditional uses of cannabinoids and new perspectives in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Medicines. 2018;5(3):91.

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Kozela E, Haj C, Hanus L, Chourasia M, Shurki A, Juknat A, et al. HU-446 and HU-465, derivatives of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol, decrease the activation of encephalitogenic T cells. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2016;87(1):143–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.12637.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Singh A, Saluja S, Kumar A, Agrawal S, Thind M, Nanda S, et al. Cardiovascular complications of marijuana and related substances: a review. Cardiol Ther. 2018;7(1):45–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40119-017-0102-x.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Gorbunov AS, Maslov LN, Tsibulnikov SY, Khaliulin IG, Tsepokina AV, Khutornaya MV, et al. CB-receptor agonist HU-210 mimics the postconditioning phenomenon of isolated heart. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016;162(1):27–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10517-016-3536-6.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Wang PF, Jiang LS, Bu J, Huang XJ, Song W, Du YP, et al. Cannabinoid-2 receptor activation protects against infarct and ischemia-reperfusion heart injury. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012;59(4):301–7. https://doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e3182418997.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Li Q, Guo HC, Maslov LN, Qiao XW, Zhou JJ, Zhang Y. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a role in the cardioprotection of CB2 receptor against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014;92(3):205–14. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2013-0293.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Ortega A, Garcia-Hernandez VM, Ruiz-Garcia E, Meneses-Garcia A, Herrera-Gomez A, Aguilar-Ponce JL, et al. Comparing the effects of endogenous and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists on survival of gastric cancer cells. Life Sci. 2016;165:56–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2016.09.010.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Fattore L, Fratta W. Beyond THC: the new generation of cannabinoid designer drugs. Front Behav Neurosci 2011;5. doi:ARTN 60. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00060.

  69. 69.

    Kong TY, Kim JH, Kim DK, Lee HS. Synthetic cannabinoids are substrates and inhibitors of multiple drug-metabolizing enzymes. Arch Pharm Res. 2018;41(7):691–710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-018-1055-x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Holm NB, Nielsen LM, Linnet K. CYP3A4 mediates oxidative metabolism of the synthetic cannabinoid AKB-48. AAPS J. 2015;17(5):1237–45. https://doi.org/10.1208/s12248-015-9788-7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Kong TY, Kim JH, Kwon SS, Cheong JC, Kim HS, In MK, et al. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 and uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases by MAM-2201 in human liver microsomes. Arch Pharm Res. 2017;40(6):727–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-017-0917-y.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Zendulka O, Dovrtelova G, Noskova K, Turjap M, Sulcova A, Hanus L, et al. Cannabinoids and cytochrome P450 interactions. Curr Drug Metab. 2016;17(3):206–26. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389200217666151210142051.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Tai S, Fantegrossi WE. Pharmacological and Toxicological effects of synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2017;32:249–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2016_60.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Fantegrossi WE, Wilson CD, Berquist MD. Pro-psychotic effects of synthetic cannabinoids: interactions with central dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate systems. Drug Metab Rev. 2018;50(1):65–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/03602532.2018.1428343.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Kucerova J, Tabiova K, Drago F, Micale V. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in schizophrenia. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2014;9(1):13–25.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Keimpema E, Mackie K, Harkany T. Molecular model of cannabis sensitivity in developing neuronal circuits. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2011;32(9):551–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2011.05.004.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Keimpema E, Tortoriello G, Alpar A, Capsoni S, Arisi I, Calvigioni D, et al. Nerve growth factor scales endocannabinoid signaling by regulating monoacylglycerol lipase turnover in developing cholinergic neurons. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110(5):1935–40. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1212563110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Velasco G, Hernandez-Tiedra S, Davila D, Lorente M. The use of cannabinoids as anticancer agents. Prog Neuro-Psychoph. 2016;64:259–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.05.010.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Velasco G, Hernandez-Tiedra S, Davila D, Lorente M. Corrigendum to “The use of cannabinoids as anticancer agents” [Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 64 (2016) 259–266]. 2017;74:57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2016.12.005.

  80. 80.

    Volz MS, Siegmund B, Hauser W. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids in gastroenterology. A systematic review. Schmerz. 2016;30(1):37–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00482-015-0087-0.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Singh Y, Bali C. Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation. Case Rep Oncol. 2013;6(3):585–92. https://doi.org/10.1159/000356446.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Ladin DA, Soliman E, Griffin L, Van Dross R. Preclinical and clinical assessment of cannabinoids as anti-cancer agents. Front Pharmacol 2016;7. doi:ARTN 361. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00361.

Download references

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bharath Kumar Velmurugan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Chemical and Molecular Toxicology

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Muralidhar Reddy, P., Maurya, N. & Velmurugan, B.K. Medicinal Use of Synthetic Cannabinoids—a Mini Review. Curr Pharmacol Rep 5, 1–13 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40495-018-0165-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Synthetic cannabinoids
  • Cannabis sativa
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Medicinal uses