Recent Research Progress on the Antidepressant-like Effect and Neuropharmacological Potential of Gastrodia elata Blume
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Purpose of Review
Depression is a difficult and currently incurable mood disorder and the conventional therapies used as treatment are unsatisfactory nowadays. Therefore, there is an urgent demand to find alternative or complementary approaches to deal with depression. Gastrodia elata Blume (GE) is not only a traditional Chinese medicine but also a food material that has been widely used in treating numerous neurological disorders in East Asia, including migraine, seizure, and mood disorders. In the present review article, we summarized the antidepressant-like effects of GE that have been reported in animal studies and elucidate its cellular mechanisms.
GE and its active compounds, gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillin, and their derivatives have recently been reported to have intensive antidepressant-like effects in several animal models of depression, such as the forced swim test, the tail suspension test, and the chronic mild stress. The molecular mechanisms of GE-induced antidepressant-like effect are likely through regulation of neurotransmitters, antioxidation, antiinflammation, modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotrophic effects, regulation of stem cell, and enhancement of neuroplasticity and neuroprotection.
GE and its bioactive components have been shown to possess antidepressant-like effects in several well-conducted animal studies. Additionally, GE has been applied to manipulate mood disorders in Chinese medicine for many years. However, more accurate and specific initial targeting of the mechanism of action of GE, as well as the application of clinical trials, are warranted and deserve further investigation.
KeywordsDepression Gastrodia elata Blume Gastrodin 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol Vanillin
Protein kinase B
N(6)-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) adenine riboside
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Chloride intracellular channel protein 4
cAMP responsive element binding protein
Chronic social defeat stress
- DPYL2 (CRMP2)
Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2
Extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2
Forced swim test
Glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor
Gastrodia elata Blume
Glial fibrillary acidic protein
Heat shock protein 90
Inducible nitric oxide synthase
Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation
c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase
Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Microtubule associated protein 2
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Major depressive disorder
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
Mps one binder kinase activator-like 3
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
Neural cell adhesion molecule
Nuclear factor κB
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2
Neuronal stem cells
Open field test
Oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion
Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 2
Protein disulfide isomerase
PDZ and LIM domain protein 1/5
Protein kinase A
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A
- Rho A
Ras homologous member A
Reactive oxygen species
Sex-determing region Y-box 2
Single prolonged stress
Selective serotonin (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors
Traditional Chinese medicine
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Tropomyosin-related kinase B
Tail suspension test
Neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1
(Unpredictable) chronic mild stress
Water extract of Gastrodia elata Blume
World Health Organization
This work was supported in part by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology (NSC 97-2313-B-002-014-MY3 and MOST 104–2320-B-002–036-MY3) and the Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan (105AS-16.1.1-CI-C2 and 106AS-16.1.1-CI-C2), Taiwan.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Yu-En Lin, Kuan-Hung Lu, and Lee-Yan Sheen declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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