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Current Pharmacology Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 220–237 | Cite as

Recent Research Progress on the Antidepressant-like Effect and Neuropharmacological Potential of Gastrodia elata Blume

  • Yu-En Lin
  • Kuan-Hung Lu
  • Lee-Yan Sheen
Natural Products: From Chemistry to Pharmacology (C Ho, Section Editor)
  • 41 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Natural Products: From Chemistry to Pharmacology

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Depression is a difficult and currently incurable mood disorder and the conventional therapies used as treatment are unsatisfactory nowadays. Therefore, there is an urgent demand to find alternative or complementary approaches to deal with depression. Gastrodia elata Blume (GE) is not only a traditional Chinese medicine but also a food material that has been widely used in treating numerous neurological disorders in East Asia, including migraine, seizure, and mood disorders. In the present review article, we summarized the antidepressant-like effects of GE that have been reported in animal studies and elucidate its cellular mechanisms.

Recent Findings

GE and its active compounds, gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillin, and their derivatives have recently been reported to have intensive antidepressant-like effects in several animal models of depression, such as the forced swim test, the tail suspension test, and the chronic mild stress. The molecular mechanisms of GE-induced antidepressant-like effect are likely through regulation of neurotransmitters, antioxidation, antiinflammation, modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotrophic effects, regulation of stem cell, and enhancement of neuroplasticity and neuroprotection.

Summary

GE and its bioactive components have been shown to possess antidepressant-like effects in several well-conducted animal studies. Additionally, GE has been applied to manipulate mood disorders in Chinese medicine for many years. However, more accurate and specific initial targeting of the mechanism of action of GE, as well as the application of clinical trials, are warranted and deserve further investigation.

Keywords

Depression Gastrodia elata Blume Gastrodin 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol Vanillin 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

Akt

Protein kinase B

AP-1

Activator protein-1

B2

N(6)-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) adenine riboside

Bax

Bcl-2-associated X

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BrdU

Bromodeoxyuridine

Clic4

Chloride intracellular channel protein 4

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CREB

cAMP responsive element binding protein

CSDS

Chronic social defeat stress

DA

Dopamine

Dbnl

Drebrin-like protein

DCX

Doublecortin

DG

Dentate gyrus

DOPAC

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid

DPPH

1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

DPYL2 (CRMP2)

Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2

ERK1/2

Extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2

FST

Forced swim test

GABA

γ-Aminobutyric acid

GABA-T

GABA transaminase

GAD

Glutamate decarboxylase

GCLM

Glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit

GDNF

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

GE

Gastrodia elata Blume

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

GSH

Glutathione

GSHPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GSHRx

Glutathione reductase

GSSG

Glutathione disulfide

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

HD

Huntington’s disease

HO-1

Hemeoxygenase-1

HPA

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal

Hsp90aa1

Heat shock protein 90

HVA

Homovanillic acid

i.p.

Intraperitoneally

IKK

IκB kinase

IL

Interleukin

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

iTRAQ

Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation

JNK

c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase

KEAP-1

Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1

L-DOPA

Levodopa

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MAO

Monoamine oxidase

MAOIs

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

MAP2

Microtubule associated protein 2

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MDD

Major depressive disorder

MEK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

Mobkl3

Mps one binder kinase activator-like 3

MPP+

Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NCAM

Neural cell adhesion molecule

NE

Norepinephrine

NeuN

Neuronal neuclei

NF-κB

Nuclear factor κB

NMDAR

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

NO

Nitric oxide

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

NQO1

NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase

Nrf2

Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2

NSCs

Neuronal stem cells

Nxn

Nucleoredoxin

OFT

Open field test

OGD/R

Oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion

PACSIN2

Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 2

PC12

Pheochromocytoma

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PDI

Protein disulfide isomerase

PDLIM1/5

PDZ and LIM domain protein 1/5

PFN1

Profilin 1

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase

PKA

Protein kinase A

Ppia

Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A

Prdx6

Peroxiredoxin 6

Rho A

Ras homologous member A

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RTN1/4

Reticulon 1/4

Sept2

Septin-2

sMaf

Small Maf

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

SOX2

Sex-determing region Y-box 2

SPS

Single prolonged stress

SS(N)RIs

Selective serotonin (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors

SSA

Succinic semialdehyde

TCAs

Tricyclic antidepressants

TCM

Traditional Chinese medicine

TH

Tyrosine hydroxylase

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

TPH

Typtophan hydroxylase

Tpi1

Triosephosphate isomerase

TrkB

Tropomyosin-related kinase B

TST

Tail suspension test

Tuj-1

Neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin

Uchl1

Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1

(U)CMS

(Unpredictable) chronic mild stress

WGE

Water extract of Gastrodia elata Blume

WHO

World Health Organization

4-HBA

4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol

4-HBAD

4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde

5-HIAA

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid

5-HT

Serotonin

5-HTP

5-Hydroxytryptophan

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology (NSC 97-2313-B-002-014-MY3 and MOST 104–2320-B-002–036-MY3) and the Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan (105AS-16.1.1-CI-C2 and 106AS-16.1.1-CI-C2), Taiwan.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Yu-En Lin, Kuan-Hung Lu, and Lee-Yan Sheen declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Food Science and TechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Center for Food and BiomoleculesNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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