New Insights: MicroRNA Function in CNS Development and Psychiatric Diseases
Purpose of Review
Here, we concisely review microRNA (miRNA)-related research publications on the central nervous system (CNS) development (focusing on the forebrain and the cerebellum) and related psychiatric diseases over the past 3 years. We intend to summarize the new insights from these publications and, at the same time, provide personal views on some of the important mechanistic questions in the field.
MiRNAs, a type of small non-coding RNA molecules, have emerged as essential players in many biological processes. During CNS development, miRNAs have also been shown to exert their posttranscriptional regulation in numerous developmental events acting from master regulators to fine tuners of gene expression. While a single miRNA miR-980 regulates neuronal excitability and leads to alterations in behaviors associated with memory, sometimes multiple miRNAs have to functionally converge to induce one developmental process. Recent findings identified novel target genes for selected miRNAs during distinct developmental processes, and highlighted their important functions in several signaling pathways. Meanwhile, abnormal function of miRNAs during CNS development could lead to psychiatric diseases later on in life. Indeed, genomic variants, microdeletion, and microduplication could directly or indirectly involve miRNAs in the onset of these psychiatric diseases.
Over the years, substantial research discoveries have been made to uncover molecular mechanisms of miRNA action, especially in the CNS, during normal development and under disease conditions. Thorough understanding of miRNAs function during these biological processes will facilitate future therapeutic interventions with this small, chemically synthesizable RNA molecules.
KeywordsDicer (Dicer1) MicroRNA Cerebellum Forebrain MRS target gene Psychiatric diseases
The authors wish to apologize to the scientific colleagues whose work could not be included in this review due to space limitation. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30971633 and 31171045), the Department of Science and Technology of Sichuan Province (Young Scientific Innovation Team in Neurological Disorders grant 2011JTD0005), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (PCSIRT) (IRT0935).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as:• Of importance•• Of major importance
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