Current Pharmacology Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 103–111 | Cite as

Diabetogenic Effects Associated with Psychiatric Treatment

  • Vasiliki Mamakou
  • Ioanna Eleftheriadou
  • Anastasios Tentolouris
  • Nikolaos Sabanis
  • Aikaterini Drylli
  • Nikolaos Tentolouris
Cardiovascular Pharmacology (J Ndisang, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cardiovascular Pharmacology


Purpose of Review

Mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and anxiety and depression disorder, are associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Studies report varying rates of type 2 diabetes among people with severe mental illness, ranging 1.5–5.0-fold elevated risk than in the general population, whereas the etiology is complex and multifactorial. Among other factors, this is partly attributed to adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications. This review aims to summarize literature evidence on the diabetogenic effect of commonly used psychiatric medications.

Recent Findings

From the first generation antipsychotics, thioridazine and clorpromazine are associated with high, while fluphenazine, aloperidol, and perphenazide with low risk for type 2 diabetes. From the second generation antipsychotics, the highest risk for type 2 diabetes has been found with olanzapine and clozapine, while the risk is low to moderate with the other medications of this category. Anticonvulsants, mood stabilizers, tricyclic, and tetracyclic antidepressants increase mildly to moderately the risk. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, serotonin modulators and stimulators, serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors have not been associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes.


First and second generation antipsychotics have been associated with increased risk, while anticonvulsants, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants increase modestly the risk for type 2 diabetes. Healthcare professional should be aware of the potential diabetogenic effect of antipsychotic medications and prompt screening is required for the early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in this population.


Severe mental illnesses (SMI) Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) First generation antipsychotics (FGA) Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) Antidepressants (AD) Mood stabilizers (MD) 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors of this manuscript declare no conflict of interest

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasiliki Mamakou
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ioanna Eleftheriadou
    • 3
  • Anastasios Tentolouris
    • 3
  • Nikolaos Sabanis
    • 1
  • Aikaterini Drylli
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Tentolouris
    • 3
  1. 1.Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Dromokaiteio Psychiatric HospitalAthensGreece
  3. 3.First Department of Propaedeutic Internal MedicineNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Laiko General HospitalAthensGreece

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