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Table 1 Summary of studies into camouflaging

From: The Female Autism Phenotype and Camouflaging: a Narrative Review

Approach Description
Discrepancy Conceptualises camouflaging as the discrepancy between an individual’s internal and external autistic characteristics
  Studies using this approach Operationalisation of camouflaging
  Lai et al. 2017 Discrepancy between self-reported autistic traits/performance on mentalising task (internal) and ADOS score (external)
  Lai et al. 2019 Discrepancy between self-reported autistic traits/performance on mentalising task (internal) and ADOS score (external)
  Livingston et al. 2019 Discrepancy between performance on a theory of mind task (internal) and ADOS score (external)
  Parish-Morris et al. 2017 Discrepancy between parent-reported autistic traits (internal) and use of typical language techniques (external)
  Ratto et al. 2018 Discrepancy between parent-reported autistic traits/adaptive behaviour (internal), and ADOS or ADOS-2 and ADI-R score (external)
  Rynkiewicz et al. 2016 Discrepancy between self/parent-reported autistic traits (internal) and use of gesture in ADOS-2 (external)
Observational/ Reflective Conceptualises camouflaging as the specific behaviours and processes (whether conscious or implicit) leading to variation in the behavioural presentation of autism
  Studies using this approach Operationalisation of camouflaging
  Cage et al. 2018 Self-reported camouflaging (yes/no)
  Cage and Troxell-Whitman 2019 Score on self-report measure of camouflaging behaviours (CAT-Q).
  Cassidy et al. 2018 Score on four self-report questions of camouflaging
  Dean et al. 2017 Observed social behaviours in the playground
  Hull et al. 2017a Self-reported behavioural examples
  Hull et al. 2018 Score on self-report measure of camouflaging behaviours (CAT-Q).
  Hull et al. 2019 Score on self-report measure of camouflaging behaviours (CAT-Q).
  Ormond et al. 2018 Score on ‘social masking’ subscale of parent-report autism characteristic questionnaire (Q-ASC).
  1. ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS-2 Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition, ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised, CAT-Q Camouflaging Autistic Traits Questionnaire, Q-ASC Questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Conditions