Advertisement

A Review of Sleep Disturbances among Infants and Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

  • 60 Accesses

Abstract

Sleep problems are common among children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). We review sleep disturbance in three major NDDs: autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We review associations with functional impairment, discuss how patterns of sleep disturbance inform understanding of etiology, and theorize about mechanisms of impairment. Sleep disturbance is a transdiagnostic feature of NDDs. Caregivers report high rates of sleep problems, including difficulty falling or staying asleep. Polysomnography data reveal differences in sleep architecture and increased rates of sleep disorders. Sleep disturbance is associated with functional impairment and stress among families. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms of impairment and develop more effective interventions. Despite significant sleep disturbance in FASD, limited research is available.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

References

  1. Abel, E. A., Schwichtenberg, A. J., Brodhead, M. T., & Christ, S. L. (2018). Sleep and challenging behaviors in the context of intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48, 3871–3884.

  2. Alfano, C. A., Reynolds, K., Scott, N., Dahl, R. E., & Mellman, T. A. (2013). Polysomnographic sleep patterns of non-depressed, non-medicated children with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 147, 379–384.

  3. Allen, G. C., Farnell, Y. Z., Maeng, J.-u., West, J. R., Chen, W.-J. A., & Earnest, D. J. (2005). Long-term effects of neonatal alcohol exposure on photic reentrainment and phase-shifting responses of the activity rhythm in adult rats. Alcohol, 37, 79–88.

  4. Allik, H., Jan-Olov, L., & Smedje, H. (2006). Sleep patterns of school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 585–595.

  5. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2014). International classification of sleep disorders—third edition (ICSD-3). Darien: American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: Author.

  7. Angriman, M., Caravale, B., Novelli, L., Ferri, R., & Bruni, O. (2015). Sleep in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Neuropediatrics, 46, 199–210.

  8. Ashworth, A., Hill, C. M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Dimitriou, D. (2013). Cross syndrome comparison of sleep problems in children with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1572–1580.

  9. Ashworth, A., Hill, C. M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Dimitriou, D. (2017). A cross-syndrome study of the differential effects of sleep on declarative memory consolidation in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Developmental Science, 20, 1–13.

  10. Astley, S. J., Richards, T., Aylward, E. H., Olson, H. C., Kerns, K., Brooks, A., & Jirikowic, T. (2009). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy outcomes from a comprehensive magnetic resonance study of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 27, 760–778.

  11. Austeng, M. E., Øverland, B., Kvaerner, K. J., Andersson, E.-M., Axelsson, S., Abdelnoor, M., & Akre, H. (2014). Obstructive sleep apnea in younger school children with Down syndrome. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 78, 1026–1029.

  12. Aylward, E. H., Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Honeycutt, N. A., Augustine, A. M., Yates, K. O., & Pearlson, G. D. (1999). MRI volumes of amygdala and hippocampus in non–mentally retarded autistic adolescents and adults. Neurology, 53, 2145–2145.

  13. Baum, K. T., Desai, A., Field, J., Miller, L. E., Rausch, J., & Beebe, D. W. (2014). Sleep restriction worsens mood and emotion regulation in adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 180–190.

  14. Beauchaine, T. P., Neuhaus, E., Brenner, S. L., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. (2008). Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 745–774.

  15. Beebe, D. W. (2011). Cognitive, behavioral, and functional consequences of inadequate sleep in children and adolescents. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58, 649–665.

  16. Best, J., Mutchnick, S., Ida, J., & Billings, K. R. (2018). Trends in management of obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric patients with Down syndrome. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 110, 1–5.

  17. Blackmer, A. B., & Feinstein, J. A. (2016). Management of sleep disorders in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: a review. Pharmacotherapy, 36, 84–98.

  18. Borbély, A. A., Daan, S., Wirz-Justice, A., & Deboer, T. (2016). The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal. Journal of Sleep Research, 25, 131–143.

  19. Bourgeron, T. (2007). The possible interplay of synaptic and clock genes in autism spectrum disorders. Cold Springs Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 72, 645–654.

  20. Breslin, J., Spanò, G., Bootzin, R., Anand, P., Nadel, L., & Edgin, J. (2014). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and cognition in Down syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 56, 657–664.

  21. Brooks, L. J., Olsen, M. N., Bacevice, A. M., Beebe, A., Konstantinopoulou, S., & Taylor, H. G. (2015). Relationship between sleep, sleep apnea, and neuropsychological function in children with Down syndrome. Sleep and Breathing, 19, 197–204.

  22. Bruni, O., Ferri, R., Vittori, E., Novelli, L., Vignati, M., Porfirio, M. C., & Curatolo, P. (2007). Sleep architecture and NREM alterations in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. SLEEP, 30, 1577–1585.

  23. Bruni, O., Novelli, L., Miano, S., Parrino, L., Terzano, M. G., & Ferri, R. (2010). Cyclic alternating pattern: a window into pediatric sleep. Sleep Medicine, 11, 628–636.

  24. Buckley, A. W., Rodriguez, A. J., Jennison, K., Buckley, J., Thurm, A., Sato, S., & Swedo, S. (2010). Rapid eye movement sleep percentage in children with autism compared with children with developmental delay and typical development. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164, 1032–1037.

  25. Bull, M. J., & the Committee on Genetics. (2011). Health supervision for children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics, 128, 393–406.

  26. Carter, M., McCaughey, E., Annaz, D., & Hill, C. M. (2009). Sleep problems in a Down syndrome population. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 94, 308–310.

  27. Chen, M. L., Olson, H. C., Picciano, J. F., Starr, J. R., & Owens, J. (2012). Sleep problems in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 8, 421–429.

  28. Churchill, S. S., Kieckhefer, G. M., Bjornson, K. F., & Herting, J. R. (2015). Relationship between sleep disturbance and functional outcomes in daily life habits of children with Down syndrome. Sleep, 38, 61–71.

  29. Churchill, S., Kieckhefer, G. M., Landis, C. A., & Ward, T. M. (2012). Sleep measurement and monitoring in children with Down syndrome: a review of the literature, 1960-2010. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16, 477–488.

  30. Clausen, J., Sersen, E. A., & Lidsky, A. (1977). Sleep patterns in mental retardation: Down syndrome. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 43, 183–191.

  31. Clemens, Z., Fabó, D., & Halász, P. (2005). Overnight verbal memory retention correlates with the number of sleep spindles. Neuroscience, 132, 529–535.

  32. Cohen, S., Conduit, R., Lockley, S. W., Rajaratnam, S. M. W., & Cornish, K. M. (2014). The relationship between sleep and behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a review. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 6, 44–53.

  33. Cohen, S., Fulcher, B. D., Rajaratnam, S. M. W., Conduit, R., Sullivan, J. P., St. Hilaire, M. A., & Lockley, S. W. (2017). Behaviorally-determined sleep phenotypes are robustly associated with adaptive functioning in individuals with low functioning autism. Scientific Reports, 7, 14228.

  34. Cohen, S., Fulcher, B. D., Rajaratnam, S. M. W., Conduit, R., Sullivan, J. P., St. Hilaire, M. A., et al. (2018). Sleep patterns predictive of daytime challenging behavior in individuals with low-functioning autism. Autism Research, 11, 391–403.

  35. Coogan, A. N., & McGowan, N. M. (2017). A systematic review of circadian function, chronotype and chronotherapy in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 9, 129–147.

  36. Cortesi, F., Giannotti, F., Ivanenko, A., & Johnson, K. (2010). Sleep in children with autistic spectrum disorder. Sleep Medicine, 11, 659–664.

  37. Dahl, R. E. (1996). The regulation of sleep and arousal: development and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 3–27.

  38. Dahl, R. E., & Harvey, A. G. (2007). Sleep in children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional disorders. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 2, 501–511.

  39. De Gennaro, L., & Ferrara, M. (2003). Sleep spindles: an overview. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7, 423–440.

  40. Didden, R., Korzilius, H., van Aperlo, B., van Overloop, C., & de Vries, M. (2002). Sleep problems and daytime problem behaviours in children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46, 537–547.

  41. Diomedi, M., Curatolo, P., Scalise, A., Placidi, F., Caretto, F., & Gigli, G. L. (1999). Sleep abnormalities in mentally retarded autistic subjects: Down’s syndrome with mental retardation and normal subjects. Brain and Development, 21, 548–553.

  42. Doo, S., & Wing, Y. K. (2006). Sleep problems of children with pervasive developmental disorders: correlation with parental stress. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 48, 650–655.

  43. Dorris, L., Scott, N., Zuberi, S., Givson, N., & Espie, C. (2008). Sleep problems in children with neurological disorders. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 11, 95–114.

  44. Doyle, L. R., Crocker, N. A., Fryer, S. L., & Mattson, S. N. (2017). Exposure to teratogens as a risk factor for psychopathology. In T. P. Beauchaine & S. P. Hinshaw (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 277–315). Hoboken: Wiley.

  45. Dubois, C., Houchi, H., Naassila, M., Daoust, M., & Pierrefiche, O. (2008). Blunted response to low oxygen of rat respiratory network after perinatal ethanol exposure: involvement of inhibitory control. Journal of Physiology, 586, 1413–1427.

  46. Duffy, J. F., & Czeisler, C. A. (2009). Effect of light on human circadian physiology. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 165–177.

  47. Dykens, E. M. (2007). Psychiatric and behavioral disorders in persons with Down syndrome. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 272–278.

  48. Edgin, J. O. (2013). Cognition in Down syndrome: a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 4, 307–317.

  49. Edgin, J. O., Tooley, U., Demara, B., Nyhuis, C., Anand, P., & Spanò, G. (2015). Sleep disturbance and expressive language development in preschool-age children with Down syndrome. Child Development, 86, 1984–1998.

  50. Ekambaram, V., & Maski, K. (2017). Non-rapid eye movement arousal parasomnias in children. Pediatric Annals, 46, e327–e331.

  51. Ekstein, S., Glick, B., Weill, M., Kay, B., & Berger, I. (2011). Down syndrome and ADHD. Journal of Child Neurology, 26, 1290–1295.

  52. Elmore, S. K., Betrus, P. A., & Burr, R. (1994). Light, social zeitgebers, and the sleep-wake cycle in the entrainment of human circadian rhythms. Research in Nursing and Health, 17, 471–478.

  53. Elrod, M. G., & Hood, B. S. (2015). Sleep differences among children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing peers: a meta-analysis. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 36, 166–177.

  54. Esbensen, A. J. (2016). Sleep problems and associated comorbidities among adults with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60, 68–79.

  55. Esbensen, A. J., Hoffman, E. K., Beebe, D. W., Byars, K. C., & Epstein, J. (2018). Links between sleep and daytime behaviour problems in children with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 62, 115–125.

  56. España, R. A., & Scammell, T. E. (2011). Sleep neurobiology from a clinical perspective. Sleep, 34, 845–858.

  57. Farnell, Y. Z., Allen, G. C., Nahm, S.-S., Neuendorff, N., West, J. R., Chen, W.-J. A., & Earnest, D. J. (2008). Neonatal alcohol exposure differentially alters clock gene oscillations within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, cerebellum, and liver of adult rats. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 32, 544–552.

  58. Fernandez, F., & Edgin, J. O. (2013). Poor sleep as a precursor to cognitive decline in Down syndrome: a hypothesis. Journal of Alzheimers Disease and Parkinsonism, 3, 124–134.

  59. Fernandez, F., Nyhuis, C. C., Anand, P., Demara, B. I., Ruby, N. F., Spanò, G., et al. (2017). Young children with Down syndrome show normal development of circadian rhythms, but poor sleep efficiency: a cross-sectional study across the first 60 months of life. Sleep Medicine, 33, 134–144.

  60. Finn Davis, K., Parker, K. P., & Montgomery, G. L. (2004). Sleep in infants and young children. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 18, 130–137.

  61. Fogel, S. M., & Smith, C. T. (2006). Learning-dependent changes in sleep spindles and stage 2 sleep. Journal of Sleep Research, 15, 250–255.

  62. Fogel, S. M., Nader, R., Cote, K. A., & Smith, C. T. (2007). Sleep spindles and learning potential. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 1–10.

  63. Fogel, S. M., & Smith, C. T. (2011). The function of the sleep spindle: a physiological index of intelligence and a mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1154–1165.

  64. Forbes, E. E., Bertocci, M. A., Gregory, A. M., Ryan, N. D., Axelson, D. A., Birmaher, B., & Dahl, R. E. (2008). Objective sleep in pediatric anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 148–155.

  65. Geoffray, M.-M., Nicolas, A., Speranza, M., & Georgieff, N. (2016). Are circadian rhythms new pathways to understand Autism Spectrum Disorder? Journal of Physiology-Paris, 110, 434–438.

  66. Gibbs, E. L., & Gibbs, F. A. (1962). Extreme spindles: correlation of electroencephalographic sleep pattern with mental retardation. Science, 138, 1106–1107.

  67. Godbout, R., Bergeron, C., Limoges, É., Stip, E., & Mottron, L. (2000). A laboratory study of sleep in Asperger’s syndrome. NeuroReport, 11, 127–130.

  68. Goldman, S. E., McGrew, S., Johnson, K. P., Richdale, A. L., Clemons, T., & Malow, B. (2011). Sleep is associated with problem behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1223–1229.

  69. Goldman, S. E., Richdale, A. L., Clemons, T., & Malow, B. A. (2012). Parental sleep concerns in autism spectrum disorders: variations from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 531–538.

  70. Goril, S., Zalai, D., Scott, L., & Shapiro, C. M. (2016). Sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Sleep Medicine, 23, 59–64.

  71. Greenbaum, R. L., Stevens, S. A., Nash, K., Koren, G., & Rovet, J. (2009). Social cognitive and emotion processing abilities of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a comparison with ADHD. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 33, 1656–1670.

  72. Gruber, R., Cassoff, J., Frenette, S., Wiebe, S., & Carrier, J. (2012). Impact of sleep extension and restriction on children’s emotional lability and impulsivity. Pediatrics, 130, e1155–e1161.

  73. Hairston, I. S., Talbot, L. S., Eidelman, P., Gruber, J., & Harvey, A. G. (2010). Sensory gating in primary insomnia. European Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 2112–2121.

  74. Hanlon-Dearman, A., Chen, M. L., & Olson, H. C. (2018). Understanding and managing sleep disruption in children with FASD. Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 96, 267–274.

  75. Harvey, A. G., Murray, G., Chandler, R. A., & Soehner, A. (2011). Sleep disturbance as transdiagnostic: considerations of neurobiological mechanisms. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 225–235.

  76. Hellemans, K. G. C., Sliwowska, J. H., Verma, P., & Weinberg, J. (2010). Prenatal alcohol exposure: fetal programming and later life vulnerability to stress, depression and anxiety disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34, 791–807.

  77. Hilakivi, L. (1986). Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neonatal sleep-wake behaviour and adult alcohol consumption in rats. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, 59, 36–42.

  78. Hollocks, M. J., Howlin, P., Papadopoulos, A. S., Khondoker, M., & Simonoff, E. (2014). Differences in HPA-axis and heart rate responsiveness to psychosocial stress in children with autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid anxiety. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 46, 32–45.

  79. Hollway, J. A., & Aman, M. G. (2011). Sleep correlates of pervasive developmental disorders: a review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1399–1421.

  80. Hollway, J. A., Aman, M. G., & Butter, E. (2013). Correlates and risk markers for sleep disturbance in participants of the Autism Treatment Network. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2830–2843.

  81. Humphreys, J. S., Gringas, P., Blair, P. S., Scott, N., Henderson, J., Fleming, P. J., & Emond, A. M. (2014). Sleep patterns in children with autistic spectrum disorders: a prospective cohort study. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 99, 114–118.

  82. Inkelis, S. M., & Thomas, J. D. (2018). Sleep in infants and children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 42, 1390–1405.

  83. Ipsiroglu, O. S., Wind, K., Hung, Y.-H., Berger, M., Chan, F., Yu, W., & Weinberg, J. (2019). Prenatal alcohol exposure and sleep-wake behaviors: exploratory and naturalistic observations in the clinical setting and in an animal model. Sleep Medicine, 54, 101–112.

  84. Jahnke, K., von Wegner, F., Morzelewski, A., Borisov, S., Maischein, M., Steinmetz, H., & Laufs, H. (2012). To wake or not to wake? The two-sided nature of the human K-complex. NeuroImage, 59, 1631–1638.

  85. Johansson, A. E. E., Feeley, C. A., Dorman, J. S., & Chasens, E. R. (2018). Characteristics of sleep in children with autism spectrum disorders from the Simons Simplex Collection. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 53, 18–30.

  86. Johnson, C. R., Smith, T., DeMand, A., Lecavalier, L., Evans, V., Gurka, M., et al. (2018). Exploring sleep quality of young children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behaviors. Sleep Medicine, 44, 61–66.

  87. Joyce, A., & Dimitriou, D. (2017). Sleep-disordered breathing and cognitive functioning in preschool children with and without Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61, 778–791.

  88. Katz, T., Shui, A. M., Johnson, C. R., Richdale, A. L., Reynolds, A. M., Scahill, L., & Malow, B. A. (2018). Modification of the children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire for children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48, 2629–2641.

  89. Konofal, E., Lecendreux, M., Bouvard, M. P., & Mouren-Simeoni, M. C. (2001). High levels of nocturnal activity in children with ADHD: a video analysis. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 55, 97–103.

  90. Konofal, E., Lecendreux, M., & Cortese, S. (2010). Sleep and ADHD. Sleep Medicine, 11, 652–658.

  91. Kothare, S. V., & Kaleyias, J. (2008). The clinical and laboratory assessment of the sleepy child. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 15, 61–69.

  92. Krakowiak, P., Goodlin-Jones, B., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Croen, L. A., & Hansen, R. L. (2008). Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders, developmental delays, and typical development: a population-based study. Journal of Sleep Research, 17, 197–206.

  93. Krystal, A. D., & Edinger, J. D. (2008). Measuring sleep quality. Sleep Medicine, 9, S10–S17.

  94. Lambert, A., Tessier, S., Chevrier, É., Scherzer, P., Mottron, L., & Godbout, R. (2013). Sleep in children with high functioning autism: polysomnography, questionnaires and diaries in a non-complaining sample. Sleep Medicine, 14, e137–e138.

  95. Lambert, A., Tessier, S., Rochette, A.-C., Scherzer, P., Mottron, L., & Godbout, R. (2016). Poor sleep affects daytime functioning in typically developing and autistic children not complaining of sleep problems: a questionnaire-based and polysomnographic study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 23, 94–106.

  96. Lebel, C., Rasmussen, C., Wyper, K., Walker, L., Andrew, G., Yager, J., & Beaulieu, C. (2008). Brain diffusion abnormalities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 32, 1732–1740.

  97. Leu, R. M., Beyderman, L., Botzolakis, E. J., Surdyka, K., Wang, L., & Malow, B. A. (2011). Relation of melatonin to sleep architecture in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 427–433.

  98. Limoges, É., Mottron, L., Bolduc, C., Berthiaume, C., & Godbout, R. (2005). Atypical sleep architecture and the autism phenotype. Brain, 128, 1049–1061.

  99. Liu, X., Hubbard, J. A., Fabes, R. A., & Adam, J. B. (2006). Sleep disturbances and correlates of children with autism spectrum disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37, 179–191.

  100. Lord, C. (2019). Taking sleep difficulties seriously in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD. Pediatrics, 143, e20182629. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2629.

  101. Lustenberger, C., Boyle, M. R., Algapan, S., Mellin, J. M., Vaughn, B. V., & Fröhlich, F. (2016). Feedback-controlled transcranial alternating current stimulation reveals a functional role of sleep spindles in motor memory consolidation. Current Biology, 26, 2127–2136.

  102. Mallick, B. N., Majumdar, S., Faisal, M., Yadav, V., Madan, V., & Pal, D. (2002). Role of norepinephrine in the regulation of rapid eye movement sleep. Journal of Biosciences, 27, 539–551.

  103. Malow, B. A., Katz, T., Reynolds, A. M., Shui, A., Carno, M., Connolly, H. V., & Bennett, A. E. (2016). Sleep difficulties and medications in children with autism spectrum disorders: a registry study. Pediatrics, 137, S98–S104.

  104. Malow, B. A., Marzec, M. L., McGrew, S. G., Wang, L., Henderson, L. M., & Stone, W. L. (2006). Characterizing sleep in children with autism spectrum disorders: a multidimensional approach. Sleep, 29, 1563–1571.

  105. Marks, G. A., Shaffery, J. P., Oksenberg, A., Speciale, S. G., & Roffwarg, H. P. (1995). A functional role for REM sleep in brain maturation. Behavioural Brain Research, 69, 1–11.

  106. Maski, K., Holbrook, H., Manoach, D., Hanson, E., Kapur, K., & Stickgold, R. (2015). Sleep dependent memory consolidation in children with autism spectrum disorder. Sleep, 38, 1955–1963.

  107. Mayers, A. G., & Baldwin, D. S. (2005). Antidepressants and their effects on sleep. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 20, 533–559.

  108. Mayes, S. D., & Calhoun, S. L. (2009). Variables related to sleep problems in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 931–941.

  109. Mazefsky, C. A., Herrington, J., Siegel, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B. B., & Scahill, L. (2013). The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 679–688.

  110. Mazurek, M. O., & Sohl, K. (2016). Sleep and behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 1906–1915.

  111. Mazzone, L., Postorino, V., Siracusano, M., Riccioni, A., & Curatolo, P. (2018). The relationship between sleep problems, neurobiological alterations, core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and psychiatric comorbidities. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7, 102–113.

  112. McCarley, R. W. (2007). Neurobiology of REM and NREM sleep. Sleep Medicine, 8, 302–330.

  113. Mednick, S. C., McDevitt, E. A., Walsh, J. K., Wamsley, E., Paulus, M., Kanady, J. C., & Drummond, S. P. A. (2013). The critical role of sleep spindles in hippocampal-dependent memory: a pharmacology study. Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 4494–4504.

  114. Melke, J., Botros, H. G., Chaste, P., Betancur, C., Nygren, G., Anckarsäter, H., et al. (2008). Abnormal melatonin synthesis in autism spectrum disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 90–98.

  115. Meltzer, L. J. (2008). Brief report: sleep in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33, 380–386.

  116. Meltzer, L. J. (2017). Future directions in sleep and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 46, 295–301.

  117. Meltzer, L. J., & Mindell, J. A. (2006). Sleep and sleep disorders in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 29, 1059–1076.

  118. Meltzer, L. J., & Montgomery-Downs, H. E. (2011). Sleep in the family. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58, 765–774.

  119. Meltzer, L. J., Montgomery-Downs, H. E., Insana, S. P., & Walsh, C. M. (2012). Use of actigraphy for assessment in pediatric sleep research. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16, 463–475.

  120. Miano, S., Bruni, O., Elia, M., Scifo, L., Smerieri, A., Trovato, A., et al. (2008). Sleep phenotypes of intellectual disability: a polysomnographic evaluation in subjects with Down syndrome and Fragile-X syndrome. Clinical Neurophysiology, 119, 1242–1247.

  121. Miano, S., Bruni, O., Elia, M., Trovato, A., Smerieri, A., Verrillo, E., & Ferri, R. (2007). Sleep in children with autistic spectrum disorder: a questionnaire and polysomnographic study. Sleep Medicine, 9, 64–70.

  122. Mindell, J. A., & Owens, J. A. (2015). A clinical guide to pediatric sleep: diagnosis and management of sleep problems (3rd ed.). Hong Kong: Wolters Kluwer.

  123. Moore, M., Evans, V., Hanvey, G., & Johnson, C. (2017). Assessment of sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children, 4, 72–88.

  124. Moore, M., Meltzer, L. J., & Mindell, J. A. (2008). Bedtime problems and night wakings in children. Primary Care, 35, 569–581.

  125. Moss, A. H. B., Gordon, J. E., & O’Connell, A. (2014). Impact of sleepwise: an intervention for youth with developmental disabilities and sleep disturbance. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1695–1707.

  126. Mughal, R., & Dimitriou, D. (2017). Sleep, maladaptive behaviour and language acquisition in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Sleep Medicine, 40, e231.

  127. Muller, C. L., Anacker, A. M. J., & Veenstra-Vanderweele, J. (2016). The serotonin system in autism spectrum disorder: from biomarker to animal models. Neuroscience, 321, 24–41.

  128. National Advisory Mental Health Council Workgroup on Tasks and Measures for Research Doman Criteria. (2016). Behavioral assessment methods for RDoC constructs. Bethesda: National Institute of Mental Health.

  129. Nguyen, A. K. D., Murphy, L. E., Kocak, M., Tylavsky, F. A., & Pagani, L. S. (2018). Prospective associations between infant sleep at 12 months and autism spectrum disorder screening scores at 24 months in a community-based birth cohort. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 79, 16m11127.

  130. Nguyen, T. Q., Liang, C.-L., & Marks, G. A. (2013). GABAA receptors implicated in REM sleep control express a benzodiazepine binding site. Brain Research, 1527, 131–140.

  131. Nisbet, L. C., Phillips, N. N., Hoban, T. F., & O’Brien, L. M. (2015). Characterization of a sleep architectural phenotype in children with Down syndrome. Sleep and Breathing, 19, 1065–1071.

  132. Nishino, S., Ripley, B., Overeem, S., Lammers, G. J., & Mignot, E. (2000). Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency in human narcolepsy. The Lancet, 355, 39–40.

  133. O’Driscoll, D. M., Foster, A. M., Ng, M. L., Yang, J. S. C., Bashir, F., Nixon, G. M., & Horne, R. S. C. (2009). Acute cardiovascular changes with obstructive events in children with sleep disordered breathing. Sleep, 32, 1265–1271.

  134. Olateju, O. I., Bhagwandin, A., Ihunwo, A. O., & Manger, P. R. (2017). Changes in the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, orexinergic and serotonergic structures forming part of the sleep systems of adult mice exposed to intrauterine alcohol. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 11, 110.

  135. Olson, H. C., Jirikowic, T., Kartin, D., & Astley, S. (2007). Responding to the challenge of early intervention for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Infants and Young Children, 20, 172–189. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.IYC.0000264484.73688.4a.

  136. Owens, J. A. (2004). Sleep in children: cross-cultural perspectives. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 2, 165–173.

  137. Owens, J. A. (2005). The ADHD and sleep conundrum: a review. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26, 312–322.

  138. Owens, J. A. (2007). Classification and epidemiology of childhood sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 2, 353–361.

  139. Owens, J. A., Spirito, A., & McGuinn, M. (2000). The Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ): psychometric properties of a survey instrument for school-aged children. Sleep, 23, 1043–1052.

  140. Park, S., Cho, S.-C., Cho, I. H., Kim, B.-N., Kim, J.-W., Shin, M.-S., & Yoo, H. J. (2012). Sleep problems and their correlates and comorbid psychopathology of children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 1068–1072.

  141. Parrino, L., Ferri, R., Bruni, O., & Terzano, M. G. (2012). Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP): the marker of sleep instability. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16, 27–45.

  142. Pesonen, A.-K., Räikkönen, K., Matthews, K., Heinonen, K., Paavonen, J. E., Lahti, J., & Strandberg, T. (2009). Prenatal origins of poor sleep in children. Sleep, 32, 1086–1092.

  143. Peterman, J. S., Carper, M. M., & Kendall, P. C. (2015). Anxiety disorders and comorbid sleep problems in school-aged youth: review and future research directions. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46, 376–392.

  144. Proserpio, P., & Nobili, L. (2017). Parasomnias in children. In S. Nevšímalová & O. Bruni (Eds.), Sleep disorders in children (pp. 305–335). Bern: Springer.

  145. Quine, L. (1991). Sleep problems in children with mental handicap. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 35, 269–290.

  146. Quine, L. (2001). Sleep problems in primary school children: comparison between mainstream and special school children. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 27, 201–221.

  147. Rajaratnam, S. M. W., Cohen, D., & Rogers, N. L. (2009). Melatonin and melatonin analogues. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 179–193.

  148. Reynolds, A. M., & Malow, B. A. (2011). Sleep and autism spectrum disorders. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58, 685–698.

  149. Richdale, A., Francis, A., Gavidia-Payne, S., & Cotton, S. (2000). Stress, behaviour, and sleep problems in children with an intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 25, 147–161.

  150. Richdale, A. L., & Schreck, K. A. (2009). Sleep problems in autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, nature, and possible biopsychosocial aetiologies. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 13, 403–411.

  151. Robinson-Shelton, A., & Malow, B. A. (2016). Sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18, 6.

  152. Rochette, A.-C., Souliéres, I., Berthiaume, C., & Godbout, R. (2018). NREM sleep EEG activity and procedural memory: a comparison between young neurotypical and autistic adults without sleep complaints. Autism Research, 11, 613–623.

  153. Rzepecka, H., McKenzie, K., McClure, I., & Murphy, S. (2011). Sleep, anxiety and challenging behaviour in children with intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 2578–2766.

  154. Sadeh, A., Gruber, R., & Raviv, A. (2003). The effects of sleep restriction and extension on school-age children: what a difference an hour makes. Child Development, 74, 444–455.

  155. Sadeh, A. (2015). Sleep assessment methods. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 80, 33–48.

  156. Schreck, K. A., Mulick, J. A., & Smith, A. F. (2004). Sleep problems as possible predictors of intensified symptoms of autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25, 57–66.

  157. Shott, S. R., Amin, R., Chini, B., Heubi, C., Hotze, S., & Akers, R. (2006). Obstructive sleep apnea: should all children with Down syndrome be tested? Archives of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 132, 432–436.

  158. Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 921–929.

  159. Sitnick, S. L., Goodlin-Jones, B. L., & Anders, T. F. (2008). The use of actigraphy to study sleep disorders in preschoolers: some concerns about detection of nighttime awakenings. Sleep, 31, 395–401.

  160. Souders, M. C., Thorton, B. A., Valladares, O., Bucan, M., Levy, S. E., Mandell, D. S., et al. (2009). Sleep behaviors and sleep quality in children with autism spectrum disorders. Sleep, 32, 1566–1578.

  161. Stokes, P. E. (1995). The potential role of excessive cortisol induced by HPA hyperfunction in the pathogenesis of depression. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 5, 77–82.

  162. Stores, G. (2014). Sleep and its disorders in children and adolescents with a neurodevelopmental disorder: a review and clinical guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  163. Stores, R., Stores, G., Fellows, B., & Buckley, S. (1998). A factor analysis of sleep problems and their psychological associations in children with Down’s syndrome. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 11, 345–354.

  164. Taylor, M. A., Schreck, K. A., & Mulick, J. A. (2012). Sleep disruption as a correlate to cognitive and adaptive behavior problems in autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 1408–1417.

  165. Tessier, S., Lambert, A., Chicoine, M., Scherzer, P., Soulières, I., & Godbout, R. (2015). Intelligence measures and stage 2 sleep in typically-developing and autistic children. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 97, 58–65.

  166. Thirumalai, S. S., Shubin, R. A., & Robinson, R. (2002). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in children with autism. Journal of Child Neurology, 17, 173–178.

  167. Troese, M., Fukumizua, M., Sallinena, B. J., Gilles, A. A., Wellman, J. D., Paul, J. A., et al. (2008). Sleep fragmentation and evidence for sleep debt in alcohol-exposed infants. Early Human Development, 84, 577–585.

  168. Trucco, F., Chatwin, M., Semple, T., Rosenthal, M., Bush, A., & Tan, H.-L. (2018). Sleep disordered breathing and ventilatory support in children with Down syndrome. Pediatric Pulmonology, 53, 1414–1421.

  169. Tudor, M. E., Walsh, C. E., Mulder, E. C., & Lerner, M. D. (2015). Pain as a predictor of sleep problems in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 19, 1–9.

  170. Tzischinsky, O., Meiri, G., Manelis, L., Bar-Sinai, A., Flusser, H., Michaelovski, A., & Dinstein, I. (2018). Sleep disturbances are associated with specific sensory sensitivities in children with autism. Molecular Autism, 9, 22.

  171. Uban, K. A., Bodnar, T., Butts, K., Sliwowska, J. H., Corneau, W., & Weinberg, J. (2011). Direct and indirect mechanisms of alcohol teratogenesis: implications for understanding alterations in brain and behavior in FASD. In E. P. Riley, S. Clarren, J. Weinberg, & E. Jonsson (Eds.), Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: management and policy perspectives of FASD. Berlin: Wiley-Blackwell.

  172. van der Heijden, K. B., Stoffelsen, R. J., Popma, A., & Swaab, H. (2018). Sleep, chronotype, and sleep hygiene in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivitiy disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and controls. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 99–111.

  173. Veatch, O. J., Pendergast, J. S., Allen, M. J., Leu, R. M., Johnson, C. H., Elsea, S. H., & Malow, B. A. (2015). Genetic variation in melatonin pathway enzymes in children with autism spectrum disorder and comorbid sleep onset delay. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 100–110.

  174. Veatch, O. J., Sutcliffe, J. S., Warren, Z. E., Keenan, B. T., Potter, M. H., & Malow, B. A. (2017). Shorter sleep duration is associated with social impairment and comorbidities in ASD. Autism Research, 10, 1221–1238.

  175. Verhoeff, M. E., Blanken, L. M. E., Kocevska, D., Mileva-Seitz, V. R., Jaddoe, V. W. V., White, T., et al. (2018). The bidirectional association between sleep problems and autism spectrum disorder: a population-based cohort study. Molecular Autism, 9, 8–16.

  176. Verma, A., Radtke, R. A., VanLandingham, K. E., King, J. H., & Husain, A. M. (2001). Slow wave rebound and REM rebound following the first night of treatment with CPAP for sleep apnea: correlation with subjective improvement in sleep quality. Sleep Medicine, 2, 215–223.

  177. Vriend, J. L., Davidson, F. D., Corkum, P. V., Rusak, B., Chambers, C. T., & McLaughlin, E. N. (2013). Manipulating sleep duration alters emotional functioning and cognitive performance in children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 38, 1058–1069.

  178. Webster, H. H., & Jones, B. E. (1988). Neurotoxic lesions of the dorsolateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum-cholinergic cell area in the cat. II. Effects upon sleep-waking states. Brain Research, 458, 285–302.

  179. Wengel, T., Hanlon-Dearman, A. C., & Fjeldsted, B. (2011). Sleep and sensory characteristics in young children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 32, 384–392.

  180. Wiggs, L., & Stores, G. (1996). Severe sleep disturbance and daytime challenging behaviour in children with severe learning disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 518–528.

  181. Wiggs, L., & Stores, G. (1998). Behavioural treatment for sleep problems in children with severe learning disabilities and challenging daytime behaviour: effect on sleep patterns of mother and child. Journal of Sleep Research, 7, 119–126.

  182. Wiggs, L., & Stores, G. (2001). Behavioural treatment for sleep problems in children with severe learning disabilities and challenging daytime behaviour: effect on mothers and fathers. British Journal of Health Psychology, 6, 257–269.

  183. Wiggs, L., & Stores, G. (2004). Sleep patterns and sleep disorders in children with autistic spectrum disorders: insights using parent report and actigraphy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 46, 372–380.

  184. Wright, K. P., Lowry, C. A., & LeBourgeois, M. K. (2012). Circadian and wakefulness-sleep modulation of cognition in humans. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 5, 50–62.

  185. Xia, S., Li, X., Kimball, A. E., Kelly, M. S., Lesser, I., & Branch, C. (2012). Thalamic shape and connectivity abnormalities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 204, 161–167.

Download references

Acknowledgements

Work on this article was supported by Grant DE025980 from the National Institutes of Health, and by the National Institutes of Health Science of Behavior Change (SoBC) Common Fund. The funding source was not involved in any aspect of the research, including study design, writing, or publication decisions. The authors would also like to thank Drs. Heather Carmichael Olson and Maida Lynn Chen for their thoughtful advice during the conceptualization of this project.

Author information

Correspondence to Theodore P. Beauchaine.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Some information contained in this manuscript was presented during a poster session at the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (JCCAP) Future Directions Forum in June, 2018.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kamara, D., Beauchaine, T.P. A Review of Sleep Disturbances among Infants and Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Rev J Autism Dev Disord (2019) doi:10.1007/s40489-019-00193-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sleep
  • Sleep problems
  • Developmental disorders
  • Autism
  • Down syndrome
  • Fetal alcohol