Advertisement

Interventions to Promote Well-Being in Parents of Children with Autism: a Systematic Review

  • Rebecca Frantz
  • Sarah Grace Hansen
  • Wendy Machalicek
Review Paper

Abstract

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience unique challenges in performing their caregiving roles, often experiencing greater levels of parental stress than other parents. A systematic review of the literature on interventions to improve parental well-being among parents of children with ASD was conducted using three electronic databases (ERIC, PSYCHINFO, Medline) and a combination of key terms. Forty-one of the included studies were coded according to participant characteristics, intervention characteristics, outcome measures, and study quality. The following research questions were examined: (1) What type and format of interventions have been used to improve parental outcomes among parents of children with ASD? (2) What interventions have been most effective in improving parental outcomes? (3) How strong is the evidence base for interventions aimed at improving parental outcomes? Gaps in the literature, future directions for research, and implications for practice will be considered.

Keywords

Parental stress Parental well-being Caregiver burden Parental self-efficacy Parental depression Autism spectrum disorder 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This research did not involve any human subjects.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

40489_2017_123_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (37 kb)
ESM 1 (PPTX 37.2 kb)

References

  1. Abidin, R. R. (1990). Introduction to the special issue: the stresses of parenting. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19(4), 298–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, and Flannery, K. B. (1996). Contextual fit for behavioral support plans: a model for “goodness of fit.” Positive Behavioral Support: Including People with Difficult Behavior in the Community, 8, 98.Google Scholar
  3. Anclair, M., & Hiltunen, A. J. (2014). Cognitive behavioral therapy for stress-related problems: two single-case studies of parents of children with disabilities. Clinical Case Studies, 1534650114522090.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Khalaf, A., Dempsey, I., & Dally, K. (2014). The effect of an education program for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder in Jordan. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 36(2), 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, K. D., & Warzak, W. J. (2000). The problem of parental nonadherence in clinical behavior analysis: effective treatment is not enough. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 373–391.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asner-Self, K. K., Schreiber, J. B., & Marotta, S. A. (2006). A cross-cultural analysis of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(2), 367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey, D. B., McWilliam, R. A., Darkes, L. A., Hebbeler, K., Simeonsson, R. J., Spiker, D., & Wagner, M. (1998). Family outcomes in early intervention: a framework for program evaluation and efficacy research. Exceptional Children, 64(3), 313–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey, D. B., Raspa, M., & Fox, L. C. (2012). What is the future of family outcomes and family-centered services? Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 31(4), 216–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, B. L., Blacher, J., Crnic, K. A., & Edelbrock, C. (2002). Behavior problems and parenting stress in families of three-year-old children with and without developmental delays. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(6), 433–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barlow, J., Powell, L., & Gilchrist, M. (2006). The influence of the training and support programme on the self-efficacy and psychological well-being of parents of children with disabilities: a controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 12(1), 55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barlow, J. H., Powell, L. A., Gilchrist, M., & Fotiadou, M. (2008). The effectiveness of the training and support program for parents of children with disabilities: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(1), 55–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beer, M., Ward, L., & Moar, K. (2013). The relationship between mindful parenting and distress in parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Mindfulness, 4(2), 102–112.Google Scholar
  13. Bendixen, R., Elder, J., Donaldson, S., Kairalla, J., & Valcente, G. (2011). The effects of a father-based in-home intervention of perceived parent stress and family dynamics in parents of children with autism. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(6), 679–687.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benn, R., Akiva, T., Arel, S., & Roeser, R. W. (2012). Mindfulness training effects for parents and educators of children with special needs. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernal, G. (2006). Intervention development and cultural adaptation research with diverse families. Family Process, 45(2), 143–151.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bernal, G., & Sáez-Santiago, E. (2006). Culturally centered psychosocial interventions. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blackledge, J. T., & Hayes, S. C. (2006). Using acceptance and commitment training in the support of parents of children diagnosed with autism. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 28(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blacher, J., & McIntyre, L. L. (2006). Syndrome specificity and behavioural disorders in young adults with intellectual disability: cultural differences in family impact. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(3), 184–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Braiden, H., McDaniel, B., McCrudden, E., Janes, M., & Crozier, B. (2012). A practice-based evaluation of Barnardo’s forward steps early intervention programme for children diagnosed with autism. Child Care in Practice, 18(3), 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bristol, M. M., Gallagher, J. J., & Holt, K. D. (1993). Maternal depressive symptoms in autism: response to psychoeducational intervention. Rehabilitation Psychology, 38(1), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brinker, R. P., Seifer, R., & Sameroff, A. J. (1994). Relations among maternal stress, cognitive development, and early intervention in middle- and low-SES infants with developmental disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 98(4), 463–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bromley, J., Hare, D. J., Davison, K., & Emerson, E. (2004). Mothers supporting children with autistic spectrum disorders social support, mental health status and satisfaction with services. Autism, 8(4), 409–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bruder, M. B. (2000). Family-centered early intervention clarifying our values for the new millennium. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(2), 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Budd, K., Hella, B., Bae, H., Meyerson, D., Watkin, S. (2011). Delivering parent-child interaction therapy in an urban community clinic. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18(4), 502–514.Google Scholar
  26. Cachia, R. L., Anderson, A., & Moore, D. W. (2016). Mindfulness, stress and well-being in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cameron, S. J., Dobson, L. A., & Day, D. M. (1991). Stress in parents of developmentally delayed and non-delayed preschool children. Canada’s Mental Health, 39(1), 13–17.Google Scholar
  28. Crnic, K. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (1990). Minor parenting stresses with young children. Child Development, 61(5), 1628–1637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crnic, K. A., Gaze, C., & Hoffman, C. (2005). Cumulative parenting stress across the preschool period: relations to maternal parenting and child behaviour at age 5. Infant and Child Development, 14(2), 117–132.Google Scholar
  30. Chiang, H. (2014). A parent education program for parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): a pilot study. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 29(2), 88–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (revised ed.).Google Scholar
  32. Cullen, L., & Barlow, J. (2004). A training and support programme for caregivers of children with disabilities: an exploratory study. Patient Education and Counseling, 55(2), 203–209.Google Scholar
  33. Cullen, M., & Wallace, L. (2010). Stress management and relaxation techniques in education (SMART) training manual. Unpublished manuscript. Aurora, Colorado: Impact Foundation.Google Scholar
  34. Dababnah, S., & Parish, S. (2016). Incredible years program tailored to parents of children with autism: pilot results. Research on Social Work Practice, 26(4), 272–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., & Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics, 125(1), e17–e23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Davis, N. O., & Carter, A. S. (2008). Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: associations with child characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1278–1291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Deater-Deckard, K. (1998). Parenting stress and child adjustment: some old hypotheses and new questions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5(3), 314–332.Google Scholar
  38. Deater-Deckard, K., Ivy, L., & Petrill, S. A. (2006). Maternal warmth moderates the link between physical punishment and child externalizing problems: a parent-offspring behavior genetic analysis. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6(1), 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. D’Elia, V., Sonnino, F., Mammone, & Vicari. (2014). A longitudinal study of the TEACCH program in different settings: the potential benefits of low intensity intervention in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(3), 615–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Detrich, R. (1999). Increasing treatment fidelity by matching interventions to contextual variables within the educational setting. School Psychology Review, 28(4), 608.Google Scholar
  41. Dumas, J. E., Wolf, L. C., Fisman, S. N., & Culligan, A. (1991). Parenting stress, child behavior problems, and dysphoria in parents of children with autism, down syndrome, behavior disorders, and normal development. Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal, 2(2), 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dunn, W., Cox, J., Foster, L., Mische-Lawson, L., & Tanquary, J. (2012). Impact of a contextual intervention on child participation and parent competence among children with autism spectrum disorders: a pretest–posttest repeated-measures design. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(5), 520–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dykens, E. M., Fisher, M. H., Taylor, J. L., Lambert, W., & Miodrag, N. (2014). Reducing distress in mothers of children with autism and other disabilities: a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 134(2), e454–e463.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dykens, E. M., & Lambert, W. (2013). Trajectories of diurnal cortisol in mothers of children with autism and other developmental disabilities: relations to health and mental health. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(10), 2426–2434.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dyson, L. L. (1993). Response to the presence of a child with disabilities: parental stress and family functioning over time. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 98(2), 207–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Eisenhower, A. S., Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2005). Preschool children with intellectual disability: syndrome specificity, behaviour problems, and maternal well-being. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(9), 657–671.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Estes, A., Munson, J., Dawson, G., Koehler, E., Zhou, X. H., & Abbott, R. (2009). Parenting stress and psychological functioning among mothers of preschool children with autism and developmental delay. Autism, 13(4), 375–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Estes, A., Vismara, L., Mercado, C., Fitzpatrick, A., Elder, L., Greenson, J., & Dawson, G. (2014). The impact of parent-delivered intervention on parents of very young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(2), 353–365.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Falk, N. H., Norris, K., & Quinn, M. G. (2014). The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(12), 3185–3203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Farmer, J., & Reupert, A. (2013). Understanding autism and understanding my child with autism: an evaluation of a group parent education program in rural Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 21(1), 20–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Feldman, M. A., & Werner, S. E. (2002). Collateral effects of behavioral parent training on families of children with developmental disabilities and behavior disorders. Behavioral Interventions, 17(2), 75–83.Google Scholar
  52. Ferraioli, S., & Harris, S. L. (2013). Comparative effects of mindfulness and skills-based parent training programs for parents of children with autism: feasibility and preliminary outcome data. Mindfulness, 4(2), 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fisher, R., & Katz, J. E. (2008). Social-desirability bias and the validity of self-reported values. Psychology & Marketing, 17, 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gabriels, R. L., Cuccaro, M. L., Hill, D. E., Ivers, B. J., & Goldson, E. (2005). Repetitive behaviors in autism: relationships with associated clinical features. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26(2), 169–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gavidia-Payne, S., & Stoneman, Z. (1997). Family predictors of maternal and paternal involvement in programs for young children with disabilities. Child Development, 68(4), 701–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Giallo, R., Wood, C. E., Jellett, R., & Porter, R. (2013). Fatigue, wellbeing and parental self-efficacy in mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 17(4), 465–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gibaud-Wallston, J., & Wandersmann, L. P. (1978). Development and utility of the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Education and Human Development.Google Scholar
  58. Gika, D. M., Artemiadis, A. K., Alexopoulos, E. C., Darviri, C., Papanikolaou, K., & Chrousos, G. P. (2012). Use of a relaxation technique by mothers of children with autism: a case-series study. Psychological Reports, 111(3), 797–804.Google Scholar
  59. Hastings, R. P., & Brown, T. (2002). Behavior problems of children with autism, parental self-efficacy, and mental health. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(3), 222–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hastings, R. P., Daley, D., Burns, C., & Beck, A. (2006). Maternal distress and expressed emotion: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with behavior problems of children with intellectual disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 111(1), 48–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hastings, R. P., & Johnson, E. (2001). Stress in UK families conducting intensive home-based behavioral intervention for their young child with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(3), 327–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hastings, R. P., & Taunt, H. M. (2002). Positive perceptions in families of children with developmental disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(2), 116–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hayes, S. A., & Watson, S. L. (2013). The impact of parenting stress: a meta-analysis of studies comparing the experience of parenting stress in parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(3), 629–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Heiman, T., & Berger, O. (2008). Parents of children with Asperger syndrome or with learning disabilities: family environment and social support. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 29(4), 289–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Heller, T., Miller, A. B., Hsieh, K. (1999). Impact of a consumer-directed family support plan on adults with developmental disabilities and their family caregivers. Family Relations, 48(4), 419–427.Google Scholar
  66. Higgins, D. J., Bailey, S. R., & Pearce, J. C. (2005). Factors associated with functioning style and coping strategies of families with a child with an autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 9(2), 125–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hoffman, C. D., Sweeney, D. P., Hodge, D., Lopez-Wagner, M. C., & Looney, L. (2009). Parenting stress and closeness mothers of typically developing children and mothers of children with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 24(3), 178–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hodgetts, S. A., & McConnell, D. (2013). Savage experience and outcomes of stepping stones triple P for families of children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 2572–2585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Howard, G. S. (1980). Response-shift bias a problem in evaluating interventions with pre/post self-reports. Evaluation Review, 4(1), 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Izadi-Mazidi, M., Riahi, F., & Khajeddin, N. (2015). Effect of cognitive behavior group therapy on parenting stress in mothers of children with autism. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 9(3), e1900.  http://doi.org/10.17795/ijpbs-1900
  71. Julian, McKenry, & McKelvey. (1994). Cultural variations in parenting: perceptions of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American parents. Family Relations, 43(1), 30–37.Google Scholar
  72. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go. There you are: mindfulness meditation in everyday life.Google Scholar
  73. Kabat-Zinn, J., & Santorelli, S. (1999). Mindfulness-based stress reduction professional training resource manual. Worchester: Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care and Society.Google Scholar
  74. Keen, D., Rodger, S., Doussin, K., & Braithwaite, M. (2007). A pilot study of the efficacy of a social-pragmatic intervention on the communication and symbolic play of children with autism. Autism, 11(1), 63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kelley, & Tseng. (1992). Cultural differences in child rearing a comparison of immigrant Chinese and Caucasian American mothers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 23(4), 444–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kirmayer, L. J. (2001). Cultural variations in the clinical presentation of depression and anxiety: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 22–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kirkham, M., Schilling, R. F., Norelius, K., & Schinke, S. P. (1986). Developing coping styles and social support networks: an intervention study with mothers of handicapped children. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 12(5), 313–323.Google Scholar
  78. Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Loos, L. M., Dirlich-Wilhelm, H., Dunlap, G., Robbins, F. R., & Plienis, A. J. (1992). Consistent stress profiles in mothers of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22(2), 205–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kotchick, & Forehand. (2002). Putting parenting in perspective: a discussion of the contextual factors that shape parenting practices. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(3), 255–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Küçüker, S. (2006). The family-focused early intervention programme: evaluation of parental stress and depression. Early Child Development and Care, 176(3–4), 329–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kuhn, J. C., & Carter, A. S. (2006). Maternal self-efficacy and associated parenting cognitions among mothers of children with autism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 564–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lau, A. S. (2006). Making the case for selective and directed cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments: examples from parent training. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13(4), 295–310.Google Scholar
  83. Lavelle, T. A., Weinstein, M. C., Newhouse, J. P., Munir, K., Kuhlthau, K. A., & Prosser, L. A. (2014). Economic burden of childhood autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 133(3), e520–e529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lecavalier, L., Leone, S., & Wiltz, J. (2006). The impact of behaviour problems on caregiver stress in young people with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(3), 172–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee, L. C., Harrington, R. A., Louie, B. B., & Newschaffer, C. J. (2008). Children with autism: quality of life and parental concerns. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(6), 1147–1160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Leung, C., Fan, A., & Sanders, M. R. (2013). The effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese parents who have a child with developmental disabilities: a randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(3), 976–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Leyfer, O. T., Folstein, S. E., Bacalman, S., Davis, N. O., Dinh, E., Morgan, J., et al. (2006). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 849–861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Magaña, S., Lopez, K., & Machalicek, W. (2015). Parents taking action: a pycho-educational intervention for Latino parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Family Process, 56(1), 59–74.  https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12169.
  89. Mahoney, G., Boyce, G., Fewell, R. R., Spiker, D., & Wheeden, C. A. (1998). The relationship of parent-child interaction to the effectiveness of early intervention services for at-risk children and children with disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 18(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mayes, S. D., Calhoun, S. L., Murray, M. J., & Zahid, J. (2011). Variables associated with anxiety and depression in children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23(4), 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McAleese, A., Lavery, C., & Dyer K. F. W. (2014). Evaluating a psycho-educational therapeutic group for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Child Care in Practice, 20(2), 162–181.Google Scholar
  92. McConachie, H., & Diggle, T. (2007). Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 13(1), 120–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McConkey, R., & Samadi, S. (2013). The impact of mutial support on Iranian parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder: a longitudinal study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35(9), 775–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McConkey, R., Truesdale-Kennedy, M., Chang, M.-Y., Jarrah, S., & Shukri, R. (2008). The impact on mothers of bringing up a child with intellectual disabilities: a cross-cultural study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(1), 65–74.Google Scholar
  95. Minjarez, M. B., Mercier, E. M., Williams, S. E., & Hardan, A. Y. (2012). Impact of pivotal response training group therapy on stress and empowerment in parents of children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(2), 71–78.Google Scholar
  96. Moore, T. R., & Symons, F. J. (2009). Adherence to behavioral and medical treatment recommendations by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(8), 1173–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Neece, C. L., Green, S. A., & Baker, B. L. (2012). Parenting stress and child behavior problems: a transactional relationship across time. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(1), 48–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Neece, C. L. (2014). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for parents of young children with developmental delays: implications for parental mental health and child behavior problems. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(2), 174–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Noh, S., Dumas, J. E., Wolf, L. C., & Fisman, S. N. (1989). Delineating sources of stress in parents of exceptional children. Family Relations, 38(4), 456–461.Google Scholar
  100. Olsson, M. B., & Hwang, C. P. (2001). Depression in mothers and fathers of children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45(6), 535–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Orsmond, G. I., Seltzer, M. M., Krauss, M. W., & Hong, J. (2003). Behavior problems in adults with mental retardation and maternal well-being: examination of the direction of effects. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 108(4), 257–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Osborne, L. A., McHugh, L., Saunders, J., & Reed, P. (2008). Parenting stress reduces the effectiveness of early teaching interventions for autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(6), 1092–1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Patra, S., Arun, P., & Chavan, B. (2015). Impact of psychoeducation intervention module on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary study. Journal of Neuroscience in Rural Practice, 6(4), 529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pisterman, S., Firestone, P., McGrath, P., Goodman, J. T., Webster, I., Mallory, R., & Coffin, B. (1992). The effects of parent training on parenting stress and sense of competence. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 24(1), 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pisula, E. (2007). A comparative study of stress profiles in mothers of children with autism and those of children with down’s syndrome. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(3), 274–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Plant, K. M., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Reducing problem behavior during care-giving in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28(4), 362–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Reed, P., Osborne, L. A., Makrygianni, M., Waddington, E., Etherington, A., & Gainsborough, J. (2013). Evaluation of the Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) teaching intervention program in a real world setting. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(6), 631–638.Google Scholar
  109. Rodrigue, J. R., Morgan, S. B., & Geffken, G. (1990). Families of autistic children: psychological functioning of mothers. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19(4), 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ryder, A. G., Yang, J., Zhu, X., Yao, S., Yi, J., Heine, S. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2008). The cultural shaping of depression: somatic symptoms in China, psychological symptoms in North America? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(2), 300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Samadi, S. A., McConkey, R., & Kelly, G. (2012). Enhancing parental well-being and coping through a family centered short course for Iranian parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 17(1), 27–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sawyer, M. G., Bittman, M., La Greca, A. M., Crettenden, A. D., Harchak, T. F., & Martin, J. (2010). Time demands of caring for children with autism: what are the implications for maternal mental health? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(5), 620–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., Hong, J., Smith, L. E., Almeida, D. M., Coe, C., & Stawski, R. S. (2010). Maternal cortisol levels and behavior problems in adolescents and adults with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(4), 457–469.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sharpe, D. L., & Baker, D. L. (2007). Financial issues associated with having a child with autism. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28(2), 247–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shin, J., Nhan, N. V., Crittenden, K. S., Hong, H. T. D., Flory, M., & Ladinsky, J. (2006). Parenting stress of mothers and fathers of young children with cognitive delays in Vietnam. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(10), 748–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Singer, G. H., Ethridge, B. L., & Aldana, S. I. (2007). Primary and secondary effects of parenting and stress management interventions for parents of children with developmental disabilities: a meta-analysis. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13(4), 357–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sofronoff, K., & Farbotko, M. (2002). The effectiveness of parent management training to increase self-efficacy in parents of children with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 6(3), 271–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Suzuki, Y., Watanabe, A., Katsuki, N., & Ota. (2014). A failure to confirm the effectiveness of a brief group psychoeducational program for mothers of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1141.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Strauss, K., Vicari, S., Valeri, G., D’Elia, L., Arima, S., & Fava, L. (2012). Parent inclusion in early intensive behavioral intervention: the influence of parental stress, parent treatment fidelity and parent-mediated generalization of behavior targets on child outcomes. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(2), 688–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tellegen, C. L., & Sanders, M. R. (2014). A randomized controlled trial evaluating a brief parenting program with children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(6), 1193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Todd, S., Bromley, J., Iaonnou, K., Harrison, J., Mellor, C., Taylor, E., & Crabtree, E. (2010). Using group-based parent training interventions with parents of children with disabilities: a description of process, content and outcomes in clinical practice. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 15(3), 171–175.Google Scholar
  122. Tomanik, S., Harris, G. E., & Hawkins, J. (2004). The relationship between behaviours exhibited by children with autism and maternal stress. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 29(1), 16–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tonge, B., Brereton, A., Kiomall, M., Mackinnon, A., King, N., & Rinehart, N. (2006). Effects on parental mental health of an education and skills training program for parents of young children with autism: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(5), 561–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Van de Mortel, T. F. (2008). Faking it: social desirability response bias in self-report research. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(4), 40.Google Scholar
  125. Varela, R. E., Vernberg, E. M., Sanchez, Sosa, J. J., Mitchell, M., & Mashunkashey, J. (2004). Parenting style of Mexican, Mexican American, and Caucasian-non-Hispanic families: social context and cultural influences. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(4), 651.Google Scholar
  126. Wang, M., & Day. (2011). Stresses and coping strategies of Chinese families with children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(6), 783–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Warren, Z., McPheeters, M. L., Sathe, N., Foss-Feig, J. H., Glasser, A., & Veenstra-VanderWeele, J. (2011). A systematic review of early intensive intervention for autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 127(5), e1303–e1311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Williams, H. L., Cullen, L. A., & Barlow, J. H. (2005). The psychological well-being and self-efficacy of carers of children with disabilities following attendance on a Simple Massage Training and Support Programme: a 12-month comparison study of adherers and non-adherers. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13(2), 107–144.Google Scholar
  129. What Works Clearinghouse (2008). WWC procedures and standards handbook. Washington, DC. Retrieved December, 14, 2015.Google Scholar
  130. White, S.W., Oswald, D., Ollendick, T., & Scahill, L. (2009). Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(3), 216–229.Google Scholar
  131. Whitney, R. V., & Smith, G. (2015). Emotional disclosure through journal writing: Telehealth intervention for maternal stress and mother–child relationships. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(11), 3735–3745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Whittingham, K., Sofronoff, K., Sheffield, J., & Sanders, M. R. (2009). Stepping Stones Triple P: an RCT of a parenting program with parents of a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 469–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wolf, L. C., Noh, S., Fisman, S. N., & Speechley, M. (1989). Brief report: Psychological effects of parenting stress on parents of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(1), 157–166.Google Scholar
  134. Wong, V. C., & Kwan, Q. K. (2010). Randomized controlled trial for early intervention for autism: a pilot study of the autism 1-2-3 project. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(6), 677–688.Google Scholar
  135. Yen, S., Robins, C. J., & Lin, N. (2000). A cross-cultural comparison of depressive symptom manifestation: China and the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Special EducationUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational Psychology, Special Education and Communication DisordersGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Special Education and Clinical SciencesUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations