In this study, we aimed to determine vascular changes in the testes in patients with varicocele using the two-dimensional color superb microvascular imaging vascular index (2DcSMIVI) and compared them with those of the normal contralateral testes of the same patients as well as the normal testes of control subjects without varicocele.
A total of 114 participants and 228 testes were included in the study. 63 patients with varicocele and 51 asymptomatic volunteers were included. In total, 70 testes with varicocele (group A), 56 normal contralateral testes (Group B), and 102 bilateral normal testes were classified (Group C). Participants’ testicular volume and 2DcSMIVI values were obtained via superb microvascular imaging. Testes with varicocele were graded according to Sarteschi classification.
Statistically significant differences in mean testicular volume were observed among the three groups. The volume and 2DcSMIVI values of the varicocele side testes were significantly lower than those of groups B and C. Significant differences were also observed between Sarteschi grade and 2DcSMIVI values in group A.
We can determine impaired microcirculation of varicocele side testes quantitatively with the 2DcSMIVI technique, and obtained VI values can be used effectively in diagnosis and follow-up of the damage in testes. Our results show that 2DcSMIVI values can play a significant role in the evaluation of testicular blood flow as a predictive sign of testicular damage.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
The approval of the ethics committee was obtained before the initiation of the study. All the procedures performed in the studies on humans were in line with the ethical institutional and/or national research committee standards and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Parents of all participants were previously informed about the study, and a written informed consent was obtained before the US examination.
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Ates, F., Durmaz, M.S., Sara, H.I. et al. Comparison of testicular vascularity via superb microvascular imaging in varicocele patients with contralateral normal testis and healthy volunteers. J Ultrasound 25, 59–65 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40477-020-00553-9