A Review on Prevention Interventions to Decrease Diarrheal Diseases’ Burden in Children
Purpose of Review
Provide an overview about childhood diarrhea burden and prevention interventions with demonstrated impact in reducing disease risk.
Diarrhea incidence and mortality in children is declining around the world. A few pathogens cause most of the burden (rotavirus, norovirus, Shigella, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium). Available rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated to significantly decrease diarrhea hospital admissions and mortality. WASH interventions, especially point of use water safety improvements and handwashing, are effective in decreasing diarrhea burden. Early and exclusive breastfeeding prevents early childhood diarrhea.
Diarrhea in children under 5 years old is still among the most important causes of mortality in middle- and low-income countries. However, diarrhea complications and deaths are preventable. Vaccines, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and breastfeeding are effective and affordable interventions. Future research should determine the effectiveness of combining these interventions and address problems in implementation and integration of interventions.
KeywordsDiarrhea Vaccines WASH Nutrition
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance•• Of major importance
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