Purpose of Review
There is an increased use of dietary and nutritional treatments among families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. With unclear and sometimes contradictory information regarding the effectiveness and safety of such treatments, this review critically reviews available research.
This review identified treatments with promising and increasing levels of evidence including the few foods diet, PUFAs, probiotic treatments, and broad spectrum micronutrients; treatments with inconclusive or inconsistent findings such as gluten-free or additive-free diets, and those treatments with little evidence for effectiveness such as a sugar-free diet.
There is reasonably robust evidence for the use of some dietary and nutritional approaches such as reduction of food dyes and supplementing with essential fatty acids and broad spectrum micronutrients. Additionally, the literature reviewed provided theoretical mechanisms for these treatments. Many methodological challenges (such as sample size, length of intervention, and difficulties with researcher blinding) were reviewed, demonstrating the need for a well-designed, well-controlled replications studies to provide further guidance and reassurance to families and health professionals.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Scahill L, Schwab-Stone M. Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2000;9(3):541–55 vii.
Baio J, Wiggins L, Christensen DL, Maenner MJ, Daniels J, Warren Z, et al. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018;67(6):1–23.
Jensen PS, Hinshaw SP, Swanson JM, Greenhill LL, Conners CK, Arnold LE, et al. Findings from the NIMH multimodal treatment study of ADHD (MTA): implications and applications for primary care providers. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2001;22(1):60–73.
Marí-Bauset S, Zazpe I, Mari-Sanchis A, Llopis-González A, Morales-Suárez-Varela M. Evidence of the gluten-free and casein-free diet in autism spectrum disorders. J Child Neurol. 2014;29(12):1718–27.
Chan E, Leonard Rappaport MA, Kemper KJ. Complementary and alternative therapies in childhood attention and hyperactivity problems. Dev Behav Pediatr. 2003;24(1).
Hanson E, Kalish LA, Bunce E, Curtis C, McDaniel S, Ware J, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(4):628–36.
Weiss B. Synthetic food colors and neurobehavioral hazards: the view from environmental health research. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;120(1):1–5.
Niederhofer H, Pittschieler K. A preliminary investigation of ADHD symptoms in persons with celiac disease. J Atten Disord. 2006;10(2):200–4.
Nigg JT, Holton K. Restriction and elimination diets in ADHD treatment. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2014;23(4):937–53.
Ly V, Bottelier M, Hoekstra PJ, Arias Vasquez A, Buitelaar JK, Rommelse NN. Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;26(9):1067–79.
de Theije CGM, Bavelaar BM, Lopes da Silva S, Korte SM, Olivier B, Garssen J, et al. Food allergy and food-based therapies in neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014;25(3):218–26.
Ertürk E, Wouters S, Imeraj L, Lampo A. Association of ADHD and celiac disease. J Atten Disord. 2016;29:108705471561149.
Pelsser LM, Frankena K, Toorman J, R Rodrigues Pereira. Diet and ADHD, reviewing the evidence: a systematic review of meta-analyses of double-blind placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of diet interventions on the behavior of children with ADHD. Hashimoto K, editor. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0169277.
Buie T. The relationship of autism and gluten. Clin Ther. 2013 May;35(5):578–83.
McElhanon BO, McCracken C, Karpen S, Sharp WG. Gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):872–83.
Elder JH, Shankar M, Shuster J, Theriaque D, Burns S, Sherrill L. The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: results of a preliminary double blind clinical trial. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(3):413–20.
Ghalichi F, Ghaemmaghami J, Malek A, Ostadrahimi A. Effect of gluten free diet on gastrointestinal and behavioral indices for children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized clinical trial. World J Pediatr. 2016;12(4):436–42.
Hyman SL, Stewart PA, Foley J, Cain U, Peck R, Morris DD, et al. The gluten-free/casein-free diet: a double-blind challenge trial in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2016;46(1):205–20.
Johnson CR, Handen BL, Zimmer M, Sacco K, Turner K. Effects of gluten free/casein free diet in young children with autism: a pilot study. J Dev Phys Disabil. 2011;23(3):213–25.
Knivsberg AM, Reichelt KL, HØien T, NØdland M. A randomised, controlled study of dietary intervention in autistic syndromes. Nutr Neurosci. 2002;5(4):251–61.
Whiteley P, Haracopos D, Knivsberg A-M, Reichelt KL, Parlar S, Jacobsen J, et al. The ScanBrit randomised, controlled, single-blind study of a gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Nutr Neurosci. 2010;13(2):87–100.
Jyonouchi H, Geng L, Ruby A, Zimmerman-Bier B. Dysregulated innate immune responses in young children with autism spectrum disorders: their relationship to gastrointestinal symptoms and dietary intervention. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;51(2):77–85.
Lange KW, Hauser J, Reissmann A. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the therapy of autism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015;18(6):572–5.
Stafstrom CE, Rho JM. The ketogenic diet as a treatment paradigm for diverse neurological disorders. Front Pharmacol. 2012;3:59.
Hallböök T, Köhler S, Rosén I, Lundgren J. Effects of ketogenic diet on epileptiform activity in children with therapy resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2007;77(2–3):134–40.
El-Rashidy O, El-Baz F, El-Gendy Y, Khalaf R, Reda D, Saad K. Ketogenic diet versus gluten free casein free diet in autistic children: a case-control study. Metab Brain Dis. 2017;32(6):1935–41.
Feingold BF. Hyperkinesis and learning disabilities linked to artificial food flavors and colors. Am J Nurs. 1975;75(5):797–803.
Stevenson J, Buitelaar J, Cortese S, Ferrin M, Konofal E, Lecendreux M, et al. Research review: the role of diet in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - an appraisal of the evidence on efficacy and recommendations on the design of future studies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014;55(5):416–27.
Kanarek RB. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(7):385–91.
Heilskov Rytter MJ, Andersen LBB, Houmann T, Bilenberg N, Hvolby A, Mølgaard C, et al. Diet in the treatment of ADHD in children—a systematic review of the literature. Nord J Psychiatry. 2015;69(1):1–18.
Johnson RJ, Gold MS, Johnson DR, Ishimoto T, Lanaspa MA, Zahniser NR, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: is it time to reappraise the role of sugar consumption? Postgrad Med. 2011;123(5):39–49.
Wolraich ML, Wilson DB, White JW. The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children. JAMA. 1995;274(20):1617.
Hak E, de Vries TW, Hoekstra PJ, Jick SS. Association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with atopic diseases and skin infections? A matched case-control study using the General Practice Research Database. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013;111(2):102–106.e2.
Millichap JG, Yee MM. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):330–7.
Nigg JT, Lewis K, Edinger T, Falk M. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(1):86–97.e8.
Sonuga-Barke EJS, Brandeis D, Cortese S, Daley D, Ferrin M, Holtmann M, et al. Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(3):275–89.
Catalá-López F, Hutton B, Núñez-Beltrán A, Page MJ, Ridao M, Macías Saint-Gerons D, et al. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials. Gluud C, editor. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0180355.
Ludlow AK, Rogers SL. Understanding the impact of diet and nutrition on symptoms of Tourette syndrome: a scoping review. J Child Heal Care. 2018;22(1):68–83.
Müller-Vahl KR, Buddensiek N, Geomelas M, Emrich HM. The influence of different food and drink on tics in Tourette syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Apr;97(4):442–6.
Mitchell EA, Aman MG, Turbott SH, Manku M. Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1987;26(8):406–11.
Colter AL, Cutler C, Meckling KA. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a case-control study. Nutr J. 2008;7:8.
Agostoni C, Nobile M, Ciappolino V, Delvecchio G, Tesei A, Turolo S, et al. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in developmental psychopathology: a systematic review on early psychosis, autism, and ADHD. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(12).
Richardson AJ, Montgomery P. The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics. 2005;115(5):1360–6.
Sinn N, Bryan J. Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007;28(2):82–91.
Manor I, Magen A, Keidar D, Rosen S, Tasker H, Cohen T, et al. The effect of phosphatidylserine containing omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension. Eur Psychiatry. 2012;27(5):335–42.
Hariri M, Djazayery A, Djalali M, Saedisomeolia A, Rahimi A, Abdolahian E. Effect of n-3 supplementation on hyperactivity, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Malays J Nutr. 2012;18(3):329–35.
Johnson M, Östlund S, Fransson G, Kadesjö B, Gillberg C. Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Atten Disord. 2009;12(5):394–401.
Matsudaira T, Gow RV, Kelly J, Murphy C, Potts L, Sumich A, et al. Biochemical and psychological effects of omega-3/6 supplements in male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2015;25(10):775–82.
Bloch MH, Qawasmi A. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50(10):991–1000.
Ibarguren M, López DJ. The effect of natural and synthetic fatty acids on membrane structure, microdomain organization, cellular functions and human health. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2014;1838(6):1518–28.
Mostafa GA, Al-Ayadhi LY. The possible link between elevated serum levels of epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78 (ENA-78/CXCL5) and autoimmunity in autistic children. Behav Brain Funct. 2015;11:11.
Parletta N, Niyonsenga T, Duff J. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and correlations with symptoms in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic spectrum disorder and typically developing controls. Lakshmana MK, editor. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0156432.
MacFabe DF, Cain DP, Rodriguez-Capote K, Franklin AE, Hoffman JE, Boon F, et al. Neurobiological effects of intraventricular propionic acid in rats: possible role of short chain fatty acids on the pathogenesis and characteristics of autism spectrum disorders. Behav Brain Res. 2007;176(1):149–69.
El-Ansary AK, Al-Daihan SK, El-Gezeery AR. On the protective effect of omega-3 against propionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rat pups. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:142.
El-Ansary AK, Ben Bacha A, Kotb M. Etiology of autistic features: the persisting neurotoxic effects of propionic acid. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:74.
Thomas RH, Meeking MM, Mepham JR, Tichenoff L, Possmayer F, Liu S, et al. The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9(1):695.
Bell JG, MacKinlay EE, Dick JR, MacDonald DJ, Boyle RM, Glen ACA. Essential fatty acids and phospholipase A2 in autistic spectrum disorders. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fat Acids. 2004;71(4):201–4.
Meguid NA, Atta HM, Gouda AS, Khalil RO. Role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of Egyptian children with autism. Clin Biochem. 2008;41(13):1044–8.
Patrick L, Salik R. Benefits of essential fatty acid supplementation on language and learning skills in children with autism and Asperger’s syndrome. Autism-Asperger’s Digest. 2005;36–7.
Amminger GP, Berger GE, Schäfer MR, Klier C, Friedrich MH, Feucht M. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in children with autism: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(4):551–3.
Bent S, Bertoglio K, Ashwood P, Bostrom A, Hendren RL. A pilot randomized controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2011 May;41(5):545–54.
Bent S, Hendren RL, Zandi T, Law K, Choi J-E, Widjaja F, et al. Internet-based, randomized, controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for hyperactivity in autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Jun 1;53(6):658–66.
Mankad D, Dupuis A, Smile S, Roberts W, Brian J, Lui T, et al. A randomized, placebo controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of young children with autism. Mol Autism. 2015;6:18.
Voigt RG, Mellon MW, Katusic SK, Weaver AL, Matern D, Mellon B, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in children with autism. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;58(6):1.
Yui K, Koshiba M, Nakamura S, Kobayashi Y. Effects of large doses of arachidonic acid added to docosahexaenoic acid on social impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012;32(2):200–6.
Lindmark L, Clough P. A 5-month open study with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in dyslexia. J Med Food. 2007;10(4):662–6.
Kairaluoma L, Närhi V, Ahonen T, Westerholm J, Aro M. Do fatty acids help in overcoming reading difficulties? A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and carnosine supplementation on children with dyslexia. Child Care Health Dev. 2009;35(1):112–9.
Tan ML, Ho JJ, Teh KH. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for children with specific learning disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016.
Clarke G, Stilling RM, Kennedy PJ, Stanton C, Cryan JF, Dinan TG. Minireview: gut microbiota: the neglected endocrine organ. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28(8):1221–38.
Sudo N, Chida Y, Aiba Y, Sonoda J, Oyama N, Yu X-N, et al. Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system for stress response in mice. J Physiol. 2004;558(1):263–75.
MacFabe DF. Enteric short-chain fatty acids: microbial messengers of metabolism, mitochondria, and mind: implications in autism spectrum disorders. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2015;26:28177.
Scheres A, Milham MP, Knutson B, Castellanos FX. Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(5):720–4.
Aarts E, Ederveen THA, Naaijen J, Zwiers MP, Boekhorst J, Timmerman HM, et al. Gut microbiome in ADHD and its relation to neural reward anticipation. Hashimoto K, editor. PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0183509.
Kaplan BJ, Rucklidge JJ, Romijn A, McLeod K. The emerging field of nutritional mental health. Clin Psychol Sci. 2015;3(6):964–80.
Kristensen NB, Bryrup T, Allin KH, Nielsen T, Hansen TH, Pedersen O. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Genome Med. 2016;8(1):52.
Adams JB, Audhya T, McDonough-Means S, Rubin RA, Quig D, Geis E, et al. Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011;8(1):34.
Kałużna-Czaplińska J, Błaszczyk S. The level of arabinitol in autistic children after probiotic therapy. Nutrition. 2012 feb 1;28(2):124–6.
Parracho HMRT, Gibson GR, Knott F, Bosscher D, Kleerebezem M, Mccartney AL. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed probiotic feeding study in children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders. Int J Probiotics Prebiotics. 2010;5(2):69–74.
Tomova A, Husarova V, Lakatosova S, Bakos J, Vlkova B, Babinska K, et al. Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia. Physiol Behav. 2015;138:179–87.
Navarro F, Liu Y, Rhoads JM. Can probiotics benefit children with autism spectrum disorders? World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22(46):10093–102.
Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res. 1997;10(2):149–56.
Bilici M, Yıldırım F, Kandil S, Bekaroğlu M, Yıldırmış S, Değer O, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prog Neuro-PsychopharmacolBiol Psychiatry. 2004;28(1):181–90.
Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Deron J, Marchand M, Cortese S, Zaïm M, et al. Effects of iron supplementation on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;38(1):20–6.
Arnold GL, Hyman SL, Mooney RA, Kirby RS. Plasma amino acids profiles in children with autism: potential risk of nutritional deficiencies. J Autism Dev Disord. 2003;33(4):449–54.
Arnold LE, Disilvestro RA, Bozzolo D, Bozzolo H, Crowl L, Fernandez S, et al. Zinc for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled double-blind pilot trial alone and combined with amphetamine. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2011;21(1):1–19.
Cortese S, Angriman M, Lecendreux M, Konofal E. Iron and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: what is the empirical evidence so far? A systematic review of the literature. Expert Rev Neurother. 2012;12(10):1227–40.
Ghanizadeh A, Berk M. Zinc for treating of children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(1):122–4.
Hariri M, Azadbakht L. Magnesium, iron, and zinc supplementation for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review on the recent literature. Int J Prev Med. 2015;6:83.
Dinan TG, Cryan JF. The microbiome-gut-brain Axis in health and disease. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2017;46(1):77–89.
Dinan TG, Cryan JF, Stanton C. Gut microbes and brain development have black box connectivity. Biol Psychiatry. 2018;83(2):97–9.
McNally L, Bhagwagar Z, Hannestad J. Inflammation, glutamate, and glia in depression: a literature review. CNS Spectr. 2008;13(6):501–10.
Oddy WH, Allen KL, Trapp GSA, Ambrosini GL, Black LJ, Huang R-C, et al. Dietary patterns, body mass index and inflammation: pathways to depression and mental health problems in adolescents. Brain Behav Immun. 2018;69:428–39.
Ames BN, Elson-Schwab I, Silver EA. High-dose vitamin therapy stimulates variant enzymes with decreased coenzyme binding affinity (increased km): relevance to genetic disease and polymorphisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(4):616–58.
Toker L, Agam G. Mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric morbidity: current evidence and therapeutic prospects. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015;11:2441–7.
Gordon HA, Rucklidge JJ, Blampied NM, Johnstone JM. Clinically significant symptom reduction in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with micronutrients: an open-label reversal design study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2015;25(10):783–98.
Kaplan BJ, Fisher JE, Crawford SG, Field CJ, Kolb B. Improved mood and behavior during treatment with a mineral-vitamin supplement: an open-label case series of children. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2004;14(1):115–22.
Rucklidge JJ, Frampton CM, Gorman B, Boggis A. Vitamin–mineral treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2014;204(04):306–15.
Rucklidge JJ, Eggleston MJF, Johnstone JM, Darling K, Frampton CM. Vitamin-mineral treatment improves aggression and emotional regulation in children with ADHD: a fully blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018;59(3):232–46.
Saad K, Abdel-Rahman AA, Elserogy YM, Al-Atram AA, El-Houfey AA, Othman HA-K, et al. Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018;59(1):20–9.
Kerley CP, Power C, Gallagher L, Coghlan D. Lack of effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in autism: a 20-week, placebo-controlled RCT. Arch Dis Child. 2017;102(11):1030–6.
Gabriele S, Sacco R, Persico AM. Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;24(6):919–29.
Findling RL, Maxwell K, Scotese-Wojtila L, Huang J, Yamashita T, Wiznitzer M. High-dose pyridoxine and magnesium administration in children with autistic disorder: an absence of salutary effects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Autism Dev Disord. 1997;27(4):467–78.
Kuriyama S, Kamiyama M, Watanabe M, Tamahashi S, Muraguchi I, Watanabe T, et al. Pyridoxine treatment in a subgroup of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002;44(4):284–6.
Lelord G, Muh JP, Barthelemy C, Martineau J, Garreau B, Callaway E. Effects of pyridoxine and magnesium on autistic symptoms--initial observations. J Autism Dev Disord. 1981;11(2):219–30.
Martineau J, Barthelemy C, Garreau B, Lelord G. Vitamin B6, magnesium, and combined B6-mg: therapeutic effects in childhood autism. Biol Psychiatry. 1985;20(5):467–78.
Tolbert L, Haigler T, Waits MM, Dennis T. Brief report: lack of response in an autistic population to a low dose clinical trial of pyridoxine plus magnesium. J Autism Dev Disord. 1993;23(1):193–9.
Adams JB, Holloway C. Pilot study of a moderate dose multivitamin/mineral supplement for children with autistic spectrum disorder. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(6):1033–9.
Adams JB, Audhya T, McDonough-Means S, Rubin RA, Quig D, Geis E, et al. Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:111.
Adams JB, Audhya T, Geis E, Gehn E, Fimbres V, Pollard EL, et al. Comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention for autism spectrum disorder-a randomized, controlled 12-month trial. Nutrients. 2018;10(3).
Mayer A. Historical changes in the mineral content of fruits and vegetables. Br Food J. 1997;99(6):207–11.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Comorbidities
About this article
Cite this article
Taylor, M.R., Chuang, C., Carrasco, K.D. et al. Dietary and Micronutrient Treatments for Children with Neurodevelopment Disorders. Curr Dev Disord Rep 5, 243–252 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-018-0150-5